Rec. ITU-R M.1034-11
RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1034-1
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RADIO INTERFACE(S) FOR INTERNATIONAL
MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS-2000 (IMT-2000)
(Question ITU-R 39/8)
Rec. ITU-R M.1034-1
The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,
1that the requirements for the radio interface(s) of International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT2000) include the following aspects.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3Structure of the Recommendation...... 4
4Related documents...... 4
7IMT-2000 radio operating environments...... 5
7.1Characteristics of IMT-2000 radio operating environments...... 5
7.1.1Network attributes...... 5
7.1.2Physical attributes...... 6
7.1.3User attributes...... 6
7.2Identification of IMT-2000 radio operating environments...... 6
7.2.1Business indoor environment...... 7
7.2.2Neighbourhood indoor/outdoor environment...... 7
7.2.3Home environment...... 7
7.2.4Urban vehicular outdoor environment...... 7
7.2.5Urban pedestrian outdoor environment...... 7
7.2.6Rural outdoor environment...... 8
7.2.7Terrestrial aeronautical environment...... 8
7.2.8Fixed outdoor environment...... 8
7.2.9Local high bit rate environment...... 8
7.2.10Urban satellite environment...... 8
7.2.11Rural satellite environment...... 8
7.2.12Satellite fixed-mounted environment...... 9
7.2.13Indoor satellite environment...... 9
8Radio propagation characteristics...... 9
8.1Indoor environments...... 9
8.2Terrestrial outdoor environments...... 10
8.3Outdoor to indoor environments...... 10
8.4Satellite environments...... 11
9Service accessibility in IMT-2000 radio operating environments...... 11
9.1Service accessibility parameters...... 11
9.2Classification of service accessibility...... 12
9.3Service accessibility requirements...... 12
9.3.1System coverage...... 12
9.3.2Radio coverage...... 12
9.3.3Support of services in operating environments...... 13
10User related requirements...... 13
10.1Service related requirements...... 13
10.1.1Support of multiple IMT-2000 services...... 13
10.1.2Flexible service platform...... 13
10.1.3Variable user bit rates...... 13
10.1.4Voiceband data...... 13
10.1.5Support of data services...... 13
10.1.6Priority access and the emergency services...... 14
10.1.7Simultaneous use of multiple services...... 14
10.1.8Widespread service...... 14
10.1.9Dial tone...... 14
10.2Quality of service requirements...... 14
10.2.1Speech quality...... 14
10.2.2Speech quality maintenance techniques...... 14
10.2.3Speech delay...... 14
10.2.4Data quality...... 14
10.2.5Bit-count integrity...... 14
10.3Security related requirements...... 14
10.3.1Security constraints...... 15
10.3.2Maintenance of security on handover...... 15
10.3.3Security signalling under burst error conditions...... 15
10.3.4Minimize additional call set-up delay...... 15
10.4Cost and complexity related requirements...... 15
10.5Hand-portable viability requirements...... 15
10.6Safety and electromagnetic related requirements...... 16
10.6.1Safety requirements...... 16
10.6.2Electromagnetic compatibility...... 16
11Operational requirements...... 16
11.1Scenario requirements...... 16
11.1.1Support of multiple radio operating environments...... 16
11.1.2Support of multiple IMT-2000 operators...... 17
11.1.3Support of multiple equipment vendors...... 17
11.1.4Support of multiple IMT-2000 mobile station types...... 17
11.2Functional requirements...... 17
11.2.1Structural complexity...... 17
11.2.4Need for inter-working...... 19
11.2.5Radio network deployment...... 19
11.2.6Radio network management...... 20
11.2.7Radio network evolution...... 20
11.2.8Spectrum usage and management...... 21
11.2.9Radio range and cell sizes...... 21
11.2.10Diversity techniques...... 22
11.2.11Operational flexibility...... 22
11.3Performance requirements...... 22
11.3.1Resistance to multipath effects...... 23
11.3.2Support of moving vehicles...... 23
11.3.3Radio channel performance...... 23
11.3.4Spectrum efficiency...... 23
11.3.5Operational reliability...... 23
Annex2–...... Considerations for IMT-2000 radio operating environments 177
Annex3– Provisional service accessibility design constraints on IMT-2000 interface(s) across IMT-2000 radio operating environments 178
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) are third generation mobile systems (TGMS) which are scheduled to start service around the year 2000 subject to market considerations. They will provide access, by means of one or more radio links, to a wide range of telecommunication services supported by the fixed telecommunication networks (e.g. public switched telephone network (PSTN)/integrated services digital network (ISDN)), and to other services which are specific to mobile users.
A range of mobile terminal types is encompassed, linking to terrestrial and/or satellite based networks, and the terminals may be designed for mobile or fixed use.
Key features of IMT-2000 are:
–high degree of commonality of design worldwide,
–compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the fixed networks,
–use of a small pocket terminal with worldwide roaming capability.
IMT-2000 are defined by a set of interdependent ITU Recommendations, of which this one on requirements for the radio interface(s) is a member.
This Recommendation forms part of the process of specifying the radio interface(s) of IMT-2000. IMT-2000 will operate in the worldwide bands specified by the World Administrative Radio Conference for Dealing with Frequency Allocations in Certain Parts of the Spectrum (Malaga-Torremolinos, 1992) (WARC-92) (1885-2025 MHz and 21102200MHz, with the satellite component limited to 1980-2010 MHz and 2170-2200 MHz).
The subject matter of IMT-2000 is complex and its representation in the form of Recommendations is evolving. To maintain the pace of progress on the subject it is necessary to produce a sequence of Recommendations on a variety of aspects. The Recommendations strive to avoid apparent conflicts between themselves. Future Recommendations, or revisions, will be used to resolve any discrepancies.
The purpose of this Recommendation is to build on the IMT-2000 concepts contained in RecommendationITUR M.687 and to provide a high-level view of the constraints placed on the radio interface(s) particularly in terms of the system requirements, user requirements, and operational requirements. It takes account of the Recommendations on framework for services (Recommendation ITU-R M.816), adaptation to the needs of developing countries (RecommendationITURM.819), satellite operation (Recommendation ITU-R M.818), network architecture (RecommendationITURM.817), security principles (Recommendation ITURM.1078), and speech and voice band data performance requirements (RecommendationITU-R M.1079) to produce recommendations on the requirements for the IMT-2000 radio subsystem from an overall system perspective.
3Structure of the Recommendation
Section 4 contains a list of related Recommendations. In § 5, a list of definitions used throughout this Recommendation is given. Section 6 states the considerations that have been taken into account in the production of this Recommendation. In § 7, the IMT-2000 radio operating environments are defined and characterised. Section 8 gives radio propagation characteristics. In §9, the service accessibility of IMT-2000 radio operation environments is discussed.. In §10, user requirements dealing with cost/complexity, security and handportable viability are described. Finally, in § 11 various operational requirements are discussed.
The following ITU Recommandations contain information on IMT-2000 relating to this Recommendation:
–Recommendation ITU-R M.687:International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.816:Framework for services supported on International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.817:International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). Network architectures
–Recommendation ITU-R M.818:Satellite operation within International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.819:International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) for developing countries
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1035:Framework for the radio interface(s) and radio sub-system functionality for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1036:Spectrum considerations for implementation of International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) in the bands 18852025MHz and 21102200 MHz
–ITU-T Recommendation F.115:Service objectives and principles for Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1225:Guidelines for evaluation of radio transmission technologies for IMT-2000
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1078:Security principles for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1079:Speech and voiceband data performance requirements for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)
–Recommendation ITU-R M.1224:Vocabulary of terms for International Mobile Telecommunications2000 (IMT-2000)
A partial list of definitions pertinent to this Recommendation is found in Annex 1.
In the development of this Recommendation the following considerations have been taken into account:
a)the relevant ITU-R and ITU-T Recommendations and ongoing studies;
b)that satellite operation within IMT-2000 could facilitate the development of telecommunication services in developing countries;
c)the need for a flexible system structure able to match network investment to the revenue growth, to adapt readily to environmental factors and to respond to new developments without restricting innovation;
d)the need for mobile terminals (including those with satellite capability) to roam between mobile telecommunication networks in different countries;
e)that IMT-2000 will be required to operate in a multitude of environments, each characterised by different propagation characteristics as well as different traffic density and mobility characteristics;
f)that satellite operation within IMT-2000 holds the possibility of significantly enhancing the overall coverage and attractiveness of the services;
g)the need for the quality of service of IMT-2000 to be comparable to that of the PSTN/ISDN;
h)the increasing importance of the various types of non-voice telecommunication services;
j)that mobile terminals of IMT-2000 may be used to access mobile satellite systems for use on land, ships and aircraft.
7IMT-2000 radio operating environments
A range of radio operating environments are applicable to IMT-2000, and are defined in this section. These are characterised by a range of environment attributes as seen by the IMT-2000 radio sub-system.
The purpose of defining distinct IMT-2000 radio operating environments is to identify scenarios that, from a radio perspective, may impose different requirements on the radio interface(s). The purpose of identifying IMT-2000 radio operating environments is not to identify allowed scenarios for IMT-2000.
The distinct IMT-2000 radio operating environments identified will serve as a basis for the further IMT-2000 system design process in order to identify commonalties and trade-offs, with the aim to minimise the number of IMT-2000 radio interfaces and to maximise the commonality between them.
7.1Characteristics of IMT-2000 radio operating environments
IMT-2000 radio operating environments are characterised by a range of attributes which in some way may impact on the IMT-2000 radio sub-system. These attributes include:
System application areas for IMT-2000 are characterised by the purpose of the system coverage. The IMT-2000 system application areas may vary significantly in terms of the type of IMT-2000 network used for the system application area. These various network types may in turn impose differing requirements on the radio interface(s). Some examples of IMT-2000 system application areas may include:
–public cellular applications,
–private business applications,
–residential cordless applications,
–fixed subscriber loop replacement,
–residential neighbourhood applications,
–mobile base station applications,
IMT-2000 modes of delivery are characterised by the fundamental network implementation, but may not be seen by the users. Two distinct IMT-2000 modes of delivery are defined:
–terrestrial based infrastructure,
–satellite based infrastructure.
IMT-2000 modes of delivery are to a great extent independent of the system application areas above, but each mode of delivery may not be applicable in all system application areas.
Propagation effects are determined by the physical location of the IMT-2000 base stations and the IMT-2000 mobile stations. Propagation effects in this respect may thus vary according to, for example:
–indoor and/or outdoor operation,
–outdoor operation in urban, suburban, rural, hilly or coastal areas,
–terrestrial or satellite operation,
–land, maritime, or aeronautical operation.
Usage characteristics are given by the situation in which the IMT-2000 mobile user uses the services. These may vary according to, for example:
–usage at home, in the office or on the move,
–the expected traffic demand,
–the approximate service information rates to be provided over the IMT-2000 radio interface(s).
The relative speed between the IMT-2000 base stations and the IMT-2000 mobile stations may vary due to movement of either the IMT-2000 mobile stations or the IMT-2000 base stations. Broad categories for this relative speed include:
–stationary (0 km/h),
–pedestrian (up to 10 km/h),
–typical vehicular (up to 100 km/h),
–high speed vehicular (up to 500 km /h),
–aeronautical (up to 1500 km/h),
–satellite (up to 27000 km/h).
7.2Identification of IMT-2000 radio operating environments
Following from the above, a very high number of different IMT-2000 radio operating environments could in principle be identified. The IMT-2000 radio operating environments identified in this section have, however, been reduced to those radio operating environments that are clearly and justifiably distinct in terms of the characteristics listed above, and that could in some way impose different requirements on the IMT-2000 radio sub-system.
The IMT-2000 radio operating environments and their modes of delivery are identified in Table 1.
These radio operating environments are described in greater detail below. In all cases the propagation ranges, mobile speeds, etc. represent typical values only, and are not meant to be restrictive. In all cases, the propagation path considered is between the mobile unit and its serving base station; that is, the second radio interface of a mobile base station or repeater lies outside the described environment. The expected service information rates, however, will be given by the weakest link in the chain.
IMT-2000 operating environments and modes of deliveryEnvironment / Mode of delivery
Business indoor environment / Terrestrial
Neighbourhood indoor/outdoor environment / Terrestrial
Home environment / Terrestrial
Urban vehicular outdoor environment / Terrestrial
Urban pedestrian outdoor environment / Terrestrial
Rural outdoor environment / Terrestrial
Terrestrial aeronautical environment / Terrestrial
Fixed outdoor environment / Terrestrial
Local high bit rate environment / Terrestrial
Urban satellite environment / Satellite
Rural satellite environment / Satellite
Satellite fixed-mounted environment / Satellite
Indoor satellite environment / Satellite
Some considerations leading up to the choice of IMT-2000 radio operating environments identified above are given in Annex 2.
7.2.1Business indoor environment
The business indoor environment encompasses indoor propagation over ranges up to around 100m in an office environment, with zero to pedestrian mobile speeds (0-10 km/h). Very high traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.2Neighbourhood indoor/outdoor environment
The neighbourhood indoor/outdoor environment encompasses outdoor and indoor propagation over ranges up to around 1 km in a residential area, with zero to pedestrian mobile speeds (010km/h). Low traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
An example of such an environment is an environment where services are provided to one or more users in or near their residences through a base station located in the close vicinity of their residences.
The home environment encompasses indoor and outdoor propagation over ranges up to around 100 m in and around the home, with zero to pedestrian mobile speeds (0-10 km/h). Very low traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.4Urban vehicular outdoor environment
The urban vehicular outdoor environment encompasses outdoor propagation in urban areas, over ranges up to around 15 km, with zero to typical vehicular mobile speeds (0-100km/h). Urban outdoor propagation is characterised by frequent shadowing of the signal and multipath mostly due to buildings, and base stations located on the ground at limited heights. High traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.5Urban pedestrian outdoor environment
The urban pedestrian outdoor environment encompasses outdoor propagation in urban areas, over ranges up to around 100 m to 5 km, with zero to pedestrian mobile speeds (0-10 km/h). Urban outdoor propagation is characterised by frequent shadowing of the signal and multipath, mostly due to buildings, and base stations located on the ground at limited heights. High traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.6Rural outdoor environment
The rural outdoor environment encompasses outdoor propagation in rural areas over ranges up to around 535km, with zero to high speed vehicular mobile speeds (0-500 km/h). Rural outdoor propagation is characterised by shadowing of the signal and multipath mostly due to mountains and trees, and base stations located on the ground at limited heights. Medium traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.7Terrestrial aeronautical environment
The terrestrial aeronautical environment encompasses outdoor propagation to users within airplanes over ranges up to around 500 km, with mobile stations moving at aeronautical speeds (01500 km/h). Low traffic requirements are expected in this environment. It should be noted that this environment may also be treated as a special case of the rural outdoor environment.
7.2.8Fixed outdoor environment
The fixed outdoor environment encompasses outdoor propagation in urban and/or rural areas over ranges up to around 1 to 100 km, with stationary mobile stations. Low traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
An example of such an environment is an environment where services are provided to a user using a fixed radio link as a part of the subscriber loop, i.e. a radio link between a fixed radio distribution point in the network and a radio end-point on the customer’s premises which provides a network termination point into which a fixed or cordless apparatus may be connected.
The propagation in this fixed case is characterised by an optimised positioning of the mobile station, and possibly use of directive antennas, so that multipath and blocking possibly can be avoided to some extent, and/or that longer ranges can be achieved.
NOTE1–The propagation conditions for fixed terrestrial applications in urban and rural areas may be somewhat different. However, giving due weight to the relative importance of fixed applications with respect to mobile applications in IMT-2000, it is not justified to identify separate radio operating environments for these applications.
7.2.9Local high bit rate environment
The local high bit rate environment encompasses indoor and/or outdoor propagation over ranges up to around 100 m with zero to pedestrian mobile speeds (0-10 km/h). Typically, such an environment would consist of a dedicated base station for very high bit rate services located at selected spots covering a small area. High traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
7.2.10Urban satellite environment
The urban satellite environment encompasses outdoor propagation over ranges up to around 47000 km in urban areas. Medium traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
The mobile earth stations may be moving with zero to typical vehicular speeds (0100km/h), and the space stations (satellites) may be moving with speeds (relative to ground) from practically zero to satellite speeds (027000km/h). The range and the relative speed in this operating environment depend on the satellite configuration.
Urban satellite propagation is characterised by frequent blocking of the signal and multipath mostly due to buildings, and space stations (satellites) located at varying elevations and positions. The varying elevations and positions for the IMT2000 satellites depend on the satellite constellation.
7.2.11Rural satellite environment
The rural satellite environment encompasses outdoor propagation over ranges up to around 47000 km in rural areas. Low traffic requirements are expected in this environment.
The mobile earth stations may be moving with zero to aeronautical speeds (0-1500 km/h), and the space stations (satellites) may be moving with speeds (relative to ground) from practically zero to satellite speeds (027000km/h). The range and the relative speed in this operating environment depend on the satellite configuration.
Rural satellite propagation is characterised by line-of-sight and occasional shadowing, and space stations (satellites) located at varying elevations and positions. The varying elevations and positions for the IMT-2000 satellites depend on the satellite constellation.
It should be noted that for the purposes of this Recommendation the rural satellite environment includes aeronautical and maritime. In these cases there may be significant differences to the rural land environment due to terminal speeds and propagation effects (e.g. multipath).
7.2.12Satellite fixed-mounted environment
The satellite fixed-mounted environment encompasses outdoor propagation over ranges up to around 47000km with stationary (fixed) mobile stations. Low traffic requirements are expected in this environment.