Internal Market and Services DG
Insurance and pensions

Brussels, 31 March 2008


QIS4 Technical Specifications (MARKT/2505/08)

Annex to Call for Advice from CEIOPS on QIS4 (MARKT/2504/08)

References to Articles in the Directive proposal refer to the amended COM proposal 2008/119 published on 26 February 2008.

All Annexes to this document are located at the end of the document except for the IFRS and Proxies annexes which are included in the relevant sections.

The Operational Risk Questionnaire (MARKT 2506/08) is presented in a separate excel file.

All documents relating to QIS4 produced by CEIOPS will be made available on their website (http://www.ceiops.eu/content/view/118/124/) including the QIS4 spreadsheets, CEIOPS' background calibration documents, a document containing a number of examples regarding the Group Specifications, and any national supervisory guidance produced by CEIOPS members.

Table of Contents

Introduction 8

Section 1 - Valuations of assets and liabilities 9

TS.I. Assets and other liabilities 9

TS.I.A Valuation approach 9

TS.I.B. Guidance 10

TS.II. Technical provisions 13

TS.II.A General Principles 13

TS.II.B. Best Estimate 19

TS.II.C Risk margin 25

TS.II.D Life Technical provisions 32

TS.II.E. Non-life Technical Provisions 46

TS.III. Annex 1: IFRS - Accounting / Solvency adjustments for the valuation of assets and other liabilities under QIS 4 52

TS.III.A. Assets……………………………………………………………………….52

TS.III.B. Other liabilities 60

TS.IV. Annex 2: Proxies 67

TS.IV.A. Range of techniques 67

TS.IV.B. Market-development-pattern proxy 68

TS.IV.C. Frequency-severity proxy 72

TS.IV.D. Bornhuetter-Ferguson-based proxy 74

TS.IV.E. Case-by-case based proxy for claims provisions 77

TS.IV.F. Expected Loss Based proxy 79

TS.IV.G. Premium-based proxy 81

TS.IV.H. Claims-handling cost-reserves proxies 82

TS.IV.I. Discounting proxy 83

TS.IV.J. Gross-to-net proxies 85

TS.IV.K. Annuity proxy 88

TS.IV.L. Life best estimate – proxy 1 89

TS.IV.M. Life best estimate – proxy 2 90

TS.IV.N. Risk Margin proxy 91

Section 2: Own funds 93

TS.V. Own Funds 93

TS.V.A. Introduction 93

TS.V.B. Principles 93

TS.V.C. Ring-fenced structures 94

TS.V.D. Classification of own funds into tiers and list of capital items 96

TS.V.E. Ancillary own funds 98

TS.V.F. Examples …………………………………………………………………...99

TS.V.G. Intangible assets 101

TS.V.H. Participations and subsidiaries in the own funds of the parent company at solo level ………………………………………………………………….101

TS.V.I. Group support 101

TS.V.J. Optional reporting 101

Section 3 - Solvency capital requirement: the standard formula 112

TS.VI. SCR General Remarks 112

TS.VI.A. Overview………………….. 112

TS.VI.B Segmentation of risks for non-life and health insurance business 113

TS.VI.C. Market risk on assets in excess of the SCR (“free assets”) 114

TS.VI.D. Valuation of intangible assets for solvency purposes 114

TS.VI.E. Intra-group participations 114

TS.VI.F. Undertaking-specific parameters 114

TS.VI.G. Simplifications in SCR 115

TS.VI.H. Adjustments for the risk absorbing properties of future profit sharing 116

TS.VI.I. Adjustments for the risk absorbing properties of deferred taxation 118

TS.VII. SCR Risk Mitigation 120

TS.VII.A. General approach to risk mitigation 120

TS.VII.B. Requirements on the recognition of risk mitigation tools 120

TS.VII.C. Principle 1: Economic effect over legal form 121

TS.VII.D. Principle 2: Legal certainty, effectiveness and enforceability 121

TS.VII.E. Principle 3: Liquidity and ascertainability of value 121

TS.VII.F. Principle 4: Credit quality of the provider of the risk mitigation instrument 122

TS.VII.G. Principle 5: Direct, explicit, irrevocable and unconditional features 122

TS.VII.H. Special features regarding credit derivatives 123

TS.VII.I. Collateral 123

TS.VIII. SCR Calculation Structure 124

TS.VIII.A. Overall SCR calculation 124

TS.VIII.B. SCRop operational risk 125

TS.VIII.C. Basic SCR calculation and the adjustment for risk absorbing effect of future profit sharing and deferred taxes 127

TS.IX. SCR market risk module 132

TS.IX.A. Introduction 132

TS.IX.B. Mktint interest rate risk 134

TS.IX.C. Mkteq equity risk 137

TS.IX.D. Mktprop property risk 143

TS.IX.E. Mktfx currency risk 144

TS.IX.F. Mktsp spread risk 145

TS.IX.G. Mktconc market risk concentrations 150

TS.X. SCR Counterparty risk module 154

TS.X.A. SCRdef counterparty default risk 154

TS.XI. SCR Life underwriting risk module 160

TS.XI.A. SCRlife life underwriting risk module 160

TS.XI.B. Lifemort mortality risk 162

TS.XI.C. Lifelong longevity risk 164

TS.XI.D. Lifedis disability risk 165

TS.XI.E. Lifelapse lapse risk 167

TS.XI.F. Lifeexp expense risk 169

TS.XI.G. Liferev revision risk 170

TS.XI.H. Lifecat catastrophe risk 171

TS.XII. SCR Health underwriting risk module 174

TS.XII.A. Health underwriting risk Module 174

TS.XII.B. Health long term underwriting risk module 176

TS.XII.C. Accident & Health short-term underwriting risk module 182

TS.XII.D. Workers compensation underwriting risk module 185

TS.XIII. SCR Non-Life underwriting risk Module 194

TS.XIII.ASCRnl non-life underwriting risk module 194

TS.XIII.BNLpr Non-life premium & reserve risk 195

TS.XIII.CNLcat CAT risk 204

Section 4 - Solvency Capital Requirement: Internal Models 211

TS.XIV. Internal Models 211

TS.XIV.A. Introduction and background 211

TS.XIV.B. Questions for all insurance undertakings (both solo entities and groups)…………………………………………………………………….212

TS.XIV.C. Questions for insurance undertakings using an internal model for assessing capital needs (both solo entities and groups) 214

TS.XIV.D. Quantitative data requests for insurance undertakings using an internal model for assessing capital needs (both solo entities and groups) 218

Section 5 - Minimum Capital Requirement 220

TS.XV. Minimum Capital Requirement 220

TS.XV.A. Introduction 220

TS.XV.B. Overall MCR calculation 220

TS.XV.C. Linear MCR for non-life business 222

TS.XV.D. MCR for non-life business – activities similar to life insurance 223

TS.XV.E. MCR for life business 224

TS.XV.F. MCR for life business – supplementary non-life insurance 226

Section 6 - Groups 227

TS.XVI. QIS 4 Technical Specifications for Groups 227

TS.XVI.A. Introduction 227

TS.XVI.B. Default method: Accounting consolidation 230

TS.XVI.C. Variation 1: Accounting consolidation method, without worldwide diversification benefits 237

TS.XVI.D. Variation 2: Accounting consolidation-based method, but without diversification benefits arising from with-profit businesses for the EEA entities 239

TS.XVI.E. Deduction and aggregation method (the Alternative Method set out in Article 231) 240

TS.XVI.F. Group Capital Requirements and Capital Resources under current regime (IGD/FCD) 242

TS.XVI.G. Group SCR Floor 242

TS.XVI.H. Use of an internal model 242

TS.XVI.I. Group Support 242

Annexes 244

TS.XVII. Annexes 245

TS.XVII.A Annex TP 1: Adoption of interest rate term structure methodology 245

TS.XVII.B Annex Own funds 1: Simplification of the calculation of SCRfund i for ring fenced structures (see TS.V.C) 249

TS.XVII.C Annex SCR 1: Treatment of participations and subsidiaries at solo level………………………………………………………………………..250

TS.XVII.D Annex SCR 2: Standardized method to determine undertaking-specific parameters (standard deviations for premium and reserve risk) 252

TS.XVII.E Annex SCR 3: Method 2 NLCat risk scenarios 254

TS.XVII.F Annex SCR 4: Concentration risk in Denmark 270

TS.XVII.G Annex SCR 5: Dutch health insurance 271

TS.XVII.H Annex SCR 6: UK alternative disability risk-sub-module within Life underwriting 274

TS.XVII.I Annex SCR 7: Alternative approach to assess the adjustment for the loss-absorbing capacity of the TP and deferred taxes – background document on the "single equivalent scenario" 278

TS.XVII.J Annex SCR 8: Alternative approach to assess the capital charge for equity risk, incorporating an equity dampener – background document provided by French authorities 282

TS.XVII.K ANNEX Groups Specifications 1: abbreviations 285

TS.XVII.L Annex Composites: summary of the main provisions in the Directive Proposal 286


The technical specifications laid out in this document have been written exclusively for the purposes of the QIS4 exercise. Whilst the results of this exercise will be the main quantitative input used by CEIOPS in the development of their final advice on potential level 2 implementing measures, which is due in October 2009, CEIOPS final advice will not necessarily reflect the specifications laid out in this document. Indeed, in a number of areas a range of different options are being tested in this exercise and a decision as to the best approach will only be taken after the results of QIS4 have been analysed and discussed. Similarly, the European Commission will only finalise its proposals for level 2 implementing measures once the Solvency II Directive has been adopted by Parliament and Council and it has received advice on potential level 2 implementing measures for Solvency II from CEIOPS in October 2009. Consequently, this text should neither be read as committing CEIOPS with respect to future advice it will provide to the European Commission on level 2 implementing measures, nor the European Commission with respect to future level 2 implementing measures it will propose. Furthermore, whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the technical specifications are consistent with the Solvency II proposal, they should not be used to interpret the Solvency II Directive proposal, or be relied upon as a source of guidance in this regard.


This document sets out the technical specifications to be used for the Fourth Quantitative Impact Study (QIS4), which the European Commission has asked CEIOPS to run between April and July 2008 in the frame of the development of potential future level 2 implementing measures for the Solvency II Directive Proposal.

The reporting date to be used by all participants should be end December 2007. Where participants do not have all the information necessary to conduct the solvency assessment on 31 December 2007, they may use 31 December 2006 as the reporting date instead, provided that they indicate this in the QIS4 spreadsheets.

As with previous QIS exercises and in order to maximise participation, participants are invited to take part in the QIS4 exercise on a best efforts basis. However, where alternative approaches are provided for in these specifications, participants are strongly encouraged to provide data on the alternatives, in order to enable a comparative quantitative analysis of the different approaches to be conducted.

In particular, participants are invited to provide feedback on the relative impact of the various simplified calculations for technical provisions and the SCR standard formula laid down in these specifications, as well as the different methods proposed for groups. In addition, participants are also invited to provide quantitative results derived using their own internal model as well as using the SCR Standard Formula.

The simplified calculations are included in boxes to help participants identify them:

Simplifications for participants

Participants are often also "requested" or "invited" to provide additional information regarding the practicality and suitability of the specifications. The most important additional questions and information requests have been highlighted in grey, with a black border.

Important question or information request

General questions on the implementation of QIS4 specifications at solo level

1. What major practical difficulties did you face in producing solo data for QIS4 purposes? Do you have any suggestions on how to solve these problems?


(a)  Can you provide an estimate of the additional resources (in fte months) that are likely to be required:

i. to develop appropriate systems and controls at solo level, and

ii. to carry out a valuation each year of the SCR in accordance with the methodology proposed in QIS4 specifications?

(b)  What level of resource (in fte months) was required to complete the solo aspects of QIS4?

(c)  On what aspect(s) of the solo QIS4 specifications (e.g. technical provisions, SCR) did you dedicate most of your resource when completing the QIS4 exercise?

3. Please provide some assessment of the reliability and accuracy of the data you have input in the QIS4 exercise.

Section 1 - Valuations of assets and liabilities

This section concerns valuation requirements for:

• assets and other liabilities

• technical provisions

TS.I.  Assets and other liabilities

TS.I.A Valuation approach

TS.I.A.1 The Solvency II risk-based philosophy for determining solvency capital requirements endeavours to take account of all potential risks faced by insurance undertakings. One component of this approach is to asses the risk of loss in the value of assets and liabilities (other than technical provisions) held by undertakings. In line with the Framework Directive Proposal, this assessment should be made using an economic, market-consistent valuation of all assets and liabilities.

TS.I.A.2 On this basis, the following hierarchy of high level principles is proposed for the valuation of assets and liabilities under QIS 4:

(i)  Wherever possible, a firm must use "mark to market" methods in order to measure the economic value of assets and liabilities;

(ii)  Where this is not possible, mark to model procedures should be used (marking to model is any valuation which has to be benchmarked, extrapolated or otherwise calculated from a market input). When marking to model, undertakings will use as much as possible observable and market consistent inputs;

(iii)  Firms may opt to follow the guidance in the annexed tables (see TS.III.A and TS.III.B) to determine where the treatment under IFRS is considered an allowable proxy for economic value for the purposes of QIS 4. Where possible, this guidance may also be applied to local GAAP;

(iv)  Under the following circumstances national accounting figures may be used (even though these might not reasonably be regarded as a proxy for economic value):

  • where a firm can demonstrate that an asset or liability is not significant in terms of the financial position and the performance of the entity as determined under the applicable financial reporting framework and the solvency assessment. (Participants should refer to the materiality principle set out in their applicable financial reporting framework to determine what is deemed significant or not, and apply the same principle for solvency purposes);
  • when the calculation of an economic value is unjustifiable and impractical in terms of the costs involved and the benefits derived.

TS.I.A.3 When participants have ring-fenced funds in place (see definition in TS.V.C), which separate part of the resources from the rest of the business, the calculation of the liabilities and assets for each ring-fenced fund should include all cash-flows in and out of that fund. For example, inter-fund cash-flows should be considered as assets of the fund which receives them and as a liability of the fund of origin. When preparingaccounts for the whole undertaking,the transactions between fundsshould be netted off.

TS.I.A.4 The attention of participants is drawn to the two following points:

Intangible assets (including goodwill):

TS.I.A.5 For solvency purposes, the economic value of most intangibles assets is considered to be nil or negligible, since they very rarely have a cashable value. Therefore, for the purpose of QIS4 all intangibles assets should be valued at nil.