Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

Vulnerability to Resilience (V2R) Project

TheV2R Project is being supported by a consortium of German, Swedish Red Cross and British Red Cross. British Red Cross, being led NS, has been providing technical support with its Country Office located at BDRCS NHQ. The duration of the Project is 4 years (May 2012 to April 2016). The Project has already accomplished the Inception Phase(May 2012 to December 2012). Action plan for ImplementationPhase that include a four months exist period (Jan-April 2016), has already been finalized.

The project will be implemented with approximately 60,000 beneficiaries in 26 communities under 5 upazilas of Barguna (Sadar, Amtoli and Patharghata) and Patuakhali (Galachipa and Kalapara) Districts. Each selected community will consist of an average of 450 families, therefore a total of 12,000 families will directly benefit from the proposed project. The primary target of the project will include highly vulnerable people, where women, children, older people and people with disability will receive special attention. Men, women and children of families that are highly exposed to cyclone and tidal surges living alongside the embankment/green belt, that have multiple vulnerabilities, that are unaware of coping mechanism or unable to cope with prevailing/upcoming challenges, that are at risk of livelihood insecurity and that have the willingness to do voluntary work for the community will be part of this project.

Key Achievements:

Developed Resilience framework


Based on initial assessment work completed in 30 communities in Barguna and Patuakhali Districts of Barisal Division, Bangladesh in the third quarter of 2012, it was determined that the Vulnerability to Resilience progamme (V2R) will focus on three sectors, namely DRR, WASH and livelihoods. However, if the V2R is to realise its goal of reducing vulnerability and increasing the resilience of target communities by supporting strategies that enable them to prepare for, mitigate and respond to multiple risks, then it is essential that these sector interventions are not siloed, but are truly integrated within a community-based approach. Using this resilience framework to support implementation, monitor progress and assess impact against a baseline will also ensure.

Linkages to sector interventions

This framework is not meant to replace the array of indicators captured within the sector assessments and monitored throughout the course of the programme. Instead, it will capture an aggregated, overall picture of the impact on community resilience, as well as ensuring cross-cutting issues – such as ‘organisation’ and ‘connectedness’– that may not be included within the sector interventions are addressed within the programme.

The framework includes between three and four indicators for each of the six characteristics – nineteen in all. The third column in the framework explains which sectors they relate to, i.e. DRR, WASH, livelihoods and/or advocacy. Some of these indicators may need to be revised following the sector assessments to ensure they are consistent with the key baseline indicators collected for the assessments. Further,

some cross-cutting indicators may not be included in the sector assessments, and therefore it will be imperative that they are added to the most closely-linked sector in the design of the assessment tools.

V2R framework for assessing community resilience

Within the V2R, resilience will be understood as an overall goal, albeit one that is as dynamic as the communities it relates to.[1] Thus, the programme will seek to build safe and resilient communities, which, while remaining dynamic, increasingly exhibit the six characteristics of resilience set out in Figure 1, as measured through the associated indicators. The framework also outlines the sectors each indicator relates to, as well as the cross-cutting issues prioritised by programme staff, including gender, climate change adaptation, governance and conflict and environmental management.

Figure 1: V2R Resilience Framework

Characteristic: A resilient community… / Indicators / Sector(s) / Cross-cutting issues
Is knowledgeable and healthy. They have the ability to assess, monitor and manage their risks. They can learn new skills and build on past experiences. / % HHs in target community taking three or more appropriate disaster preparedness measures, including at least one involving safeguarding of assets, in-line with their community disaster management plan / DRR and livelihoods
% of women and men in community who can demonstrate a clear understanding of early warning system and (early action) response mechanisms, in –line with their community disaster management plan / DRR / Gender
% of HHs in target community that can demonstrate good hygiene and sanitation practices, including in event of disaster (cyclone or flood) / WASH / Environmental management
Is organised. They have the capacity to collectively identify problems, establish priorities and act. / % of HHs in target community actively participating in sustainable CDMCs, and their sub-groups (including producers, water/sanitation/hygiene users and women’s), and disaggregated by gender[2] / DRR, livelihoods and advocacy / Governance, gender
% of women in target community actively participating in sustainable women’s group / DRR, livelihoods, WASH and advocacy / Governance, gender
% of HHs in target community actively participating in sustainable – fishermen or farmer – producer group which has influence on relevant commodity price in local market / Livelihoods / Governance, gender
Is connected. They have the relationships with external actors (family, friends and neighbours, government, BDRCS etc.) who provide a wider supportive environment, including through the supply of goods and services and information. / % of CDMCs, including at least one woman, that have a close, on-going connection to Union Council or higher (including UDMC and other relevant departments represented therein), not only in times of disaster, as demonstrated by meetings, shared plans and joint activities / DRR, livelihoods, WASH and advocacy / Governance, gender
% of HHs in target community who have sustainable access to disaster risk information and relief assistance through long-term engagement with BDRCS volunteers (project and CPP) at unit-level / DRR / Climate change adaptation
% of HHs in target community who have access to higher-level market (including price information) through producer group and/or mobile phone / livelihoods / Gender
Has infrastructure and services. They have strong housing/shelter and sanitation systems, and have access to improved water supply and health services. They have the ability to maintain, repair and renovate them. / Number of established, safe evaluation places within/close to the community, including but not limited to cyclone shelters / DRR and advocacy
% of HHs in target community that have raised their plinth as a preparedness measure to protect house during disaster / DRR
% of HHs in target communities that have improved access to health care services at the union level, including first aid in emergencies / Advocacy and DRR / Governance
% of HHs in target community that have access to clean water supply (through adoption of improved water management and sanitation practices) that is disaster-proofed / WASH / Governance, environmental management
Has economic opportunities. They have a diverse range of income generating opportunities. They are flexible and resourceful and have the capacity to accept uncertainty and respond (proactively) to change. / % of HHs in target community with two or more income generating activities, including one new activity that is either adapted to the impact of disasters or is viable in lean season (both for agriculture and fishing) / Livelihoods / Climate change adaptation
% of women in target community involved in income generating activities / Livelihoods / Gender, climate change adaptation
Number of activities at the union, upazilla and district levels that support income generation in the target community (e.g. food or cash for work for embankment repair) / Livelihoods and advocacy / Governance, environmental management
% of HHs that have started saving or investing to be enable them to withstand and recover from shocks and stresses / Livelihoods and DRR / Climate change adaptation
Can manage its natural assets. They recognise their value and have the ability to protect, maintain and enhance them. / CDMC involved actively managing embankment, as demonstrated through management of forestation, or road / DRR / Governance and conflict (sensitivity), environmental management
CDMC or sub-group involved in sustainably managing water resources, as evidenced through pond cleaning and rain water harvesting / WASH and DRR / Governance and conflict (sensitivity), environmental management

Livelihood and Market Assessment:

The assessment analyses food security and livelihoods in Barguna and Patuakhali districts of Barisal division, Bangladesh to identify interventions strengthening resilience in relation to household economies and hazards. Analysis concentrates on 26 communities already identified by the Bangladesh Red Crescent Society (BDRCS) and British Red Cross (BRC) for the three year Vulnerability to Resilience (V2R) programme in five upazila (sub-districts): Barguna Sadar, Amtoli (Taltoi), Galachipa, Pathoraghata, and Kalapara. The analysis aims to:

  1. Map geographical variation in livelihoods between and within the two districts.
  2. Assess the adequacy of livelihood assets, seasonal strategies, and the nature of food insecurity of different wealth groups in the 26 communities already targeted for the programme representing any significant geographical variations in livelihoods.
  3. Understand local markets in relation to current livelihood strategies and opportunities to diversify them.
  4. Identify major hazards and their impact on livelihood strategies and assets, adequacy of coping strategies, and food security related outcomes for different groups.
  5. Identify support provided to livelihoods and food security by other government and non-government stakeholders.
  6. Recommend appropriate intervention options to support sustainable livelihoods and increase resilience to food insecurity in line with communities’ own priorities and feeding into programme planning.
  7. Advise on criteria for identifying target household/producer groups for support.
  8. Outline potential risks related to programming and how these might be mitigated in programme design and implementation.
  9. Refine existing indicators for assessing the impact of programme outputs and outcomes on household food security and livelihoods.
  10. Mainstream gender, migration, environment, and climate change into the analysis and programme design.


WASH assessment:


[1]The IFRC resilience approach aims to help build the capacity of vulnerable communities and individuals to better prepare for, mitigate, deal with, and recover from the effects of crises. However, life is ever changing, societies are often in flux and communities are dynamic, therefore community resilience should not be conceived of as a static thing or end point, but a set of capacities that we are continually seeking to strengthen.

[2] In terms of sustainability, it will be important to assess this indicator in a look back review following the cessation of the V2R programme.