1) ___ is NOT a function of the urinary system.

a. Excreting wastesb. Regulating blood O2and CO2 c. Regulating acid-base balance d. Detoxifying drugs

2) Water flows from _____.

a. a high osmotic concentration to a low osmotic concentration

b. a low osmotic concentration to a high osmotic concentration

3) When the blood passes glomeruli, ___ is filtered into tubular system.

a. ~ 20% of blood cellsb. ~ 20% of plasma proteinsc. ~20% of plasma water and electrolytes

4) Glomerular filtration rate ____.

a. is quite constant b. fluctuates dramatically

5) Glomerular filtration membrane ___.

a. includes the foot processes of the podocytesb. is not permeable to glucose c. is not permeable to amino acids

6) Which of the following is not a component of a nephron?

a. proximal convoluted tubuleb. glomerulusc. afferent arterioled. renal artery

7) Which of the following is not a nitrogenous waste?

a. ureab. uric acidc. ammoniad. amino acid

8) Which of the renal functions can be substituted by hemodialysis?

a. producing erythropoietinb. eliminating wastesc. deamination

9) ___ is not included in the four processes of urine formation.

a. Glomerular filtrationb. Tubular reabsorptionc. Tubular secretiond. Concentrating urine

e. Storage of urine in the bladder

10) The fluid in ____ is called urine (but not glomerular filtrate or tubular fluid).

a. glomerulib. proximal tubulesc. distal tubulesd. renal calyx

11) The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb ___ of the glomerular filtrates.

a. 20-30%b. 40-50%c. 60-70%d. 80-90%

12) ___ is one of the five mechanisms for tubular reabsorption.

a. Chemotaxis b. Insulin c. Dialysisd. Solvent drag

13) If Na-K-ATPase in basal membranes of proximal tubules is eliminated, tubular reabsorption of glucose will ___ .

a. decrease b. increase c. not change

14) Glucose is present in the urine of diabetic patients because ____.

a. tubular cells actively secrete glucose into tubular fluidb. tubular cells reabsorb much less glucose

c. the amount of glucose in tubular fluid exceeds the transport maximum (Tm)

15. The tubular cells do not secrete ___ into tubular fluid.

a. amino acidsb. uric acidc. H+d. HCO3-

16. The nephron loop (Loop of Henle) ___.

a. reabsorbs two thirds of glomerular filtrates b. concentrates urinec. reabsorbs Na+ and Cl-

17. Aldosterone affects the function of ___

a. proximal tubuleb. loop of Henlec. distal tubule

18. Aldosterone enhances the reabsorption of ___.

a. Na+b. K+ c. Ca++d. phosphate

19. Atrial natriuretic factor ___.

a. enhances reabsorption of Na+b. inhibits reabsorption of Na+c. enhances reabsorption of water

20. A collecting duct ___.

a. connects several distal tubulesb. dilutes urinec. reabsorbs 2/3 of glomerular filtrates

21. ADH ___.

a. decreases the permeability of collecting ducts to water

b. increases the permeability of collecting ducts to water

22. A minimum of ___ urine has to be produced to excrete nitrogenous wastes.

a. 1-2 liter/dayb. 400 ml /dayc. 125 ml/min

23. Diabetes insipidus ___.

a. is caused by the lack of ADHb. is accompanied with oliguriac. is caused by the lack of insulin

24. Which of the following can cause glycosuria (presence of glucose in urine)?

a. drinking two 12 oz cans of regular Coke by a healthy person b. the lack of insulin c. the lack of ADH

25. Which of the following does NOT cause diuresis?

a. caffeineb. diureticsc. ADH

26. How much of the glomerular filtrate is finally excreted as urine?

a. ~ 60%b. ~ 70% c. ~ 80% d. ~ 1%

27. When urine volume exceeds 400 ml (enough to stimulate the stretch receptors) in an adult urinary bladder but the time/place do not allow urination, ___.

a. the external urethral sphincter relaxes but the internal sphincter contractsb. the external urethral sphincter contracts but the internal sphincter relaxes c. both the internal and external urethral sphincters relax d. both the internal and external urethral sphincters contract

28. About ___ of total body weight is water.

a. 40%b. 50%c. 60%d. 90%

29. The three body fluid compartments include all of the following except ___.

a. the kidneysb. plasmac. intracellular fluidd. tissue fluid

30. When placed in distilled water (0 mOsm), erythrocytes___. (The plasma membranes of erythrocytes are permeable to water)

a. shrinkb. swellc. do not shrink or swell

31. Water loss via ___ is controlled physiologically.

a. respiration b. urinec. sweating d. feces

32. Water loss via ___ can be avoided.

a. respiration b. urinec. sweating d. feces

33. Thirst is felt when ___.

a. blood volume decreasesb. plasma osmolarity decreases c. blood volume increases

34. The feeling of thirst is generated in ____.

a. mouthb. throatc. spinal cordd. hypothalamus

35. Edema can be caused by ___.

a. increased capillary reabsorption b. decreased capillary filtration c. occlusion of lymphatic vessels

36. Which ion is the most abundant in intracellular space? (hint: consider intra- vs extracellular distribution of each ion)

a. K+ b. Na+c. Ca++d. Cl-

37 . Which ion primarily determines the resting membrane potential?
a. K+ b. Na+c. Ca++d. Cl-

38. Which hormone is the primary regulator of plasma Na+ concentration?

a. PTH b. calcitonin c. aldosterone

39. The osmolarity of extracellular fluid is mainly contributed by ___.

a. NaClb. K+c. PO4

40. Which ion serves as a second messenger?
a. Cl- b. Na+c. Ca++

41. Which ion is a blood clotting factor?
a. K+ b. Na+c. Ca++

42. Which hormone decreases plasma Ca++ concentration?

a. PTHb. calcitoninc. thyroid hormone

43. Which hormone decreases plasma K+ concentration?

a. PTHb. Calcitoninc. thyroid hormone

44. Calcitrol ___.

a. is not a derivative of vitamin Db. decreases plasma Ca++ concentration c. increases absorption of Ca++ in small intestines

45. ___ is absolutely needed for the synthesis of ATP.

a. K+ b. Na+c. Ca++d. PO43-

46. When H+ concentration increases, pH ___.

a. increasesb. decreasesc. does not change

47. A buffer minimizes ___.

a. the increase but not decrease in pH b. the decrease but not increase in pH c. both increase and decrease in pH

48. ___ is NOT a major buffer in human body.

a. HEPES bufferb. Bicarbonate bufferc. Protein bufferd. Phosphate buffer

49. ___ are NOT involved in regulating plasma pH.

a. Chemical buffersb. Respiratory systemc. Kidneysd. Baroreceptors

50. Renal tubules secretes H+ when ___.

a. plasma pH is highb. plasma pH is low

51. ___ can actually excrete H+ out of the body.

a. Chemical buffers. b. The lungsc. The kidneys

52. Hypoventilation causes ___.

a. respiratory acidosisb. metabolic alkalosisc. metabolic acidosis

53. Diabetes mellitus causes ___.

a. respiratory acidosisb. respiratory alkalosisc. metabolic acidosis

54. Chronic vomiting causes ___.

a. metabolic alkalosis b. respiratory alkalosisc. metabolic acidosis


1b 2b 3c 4a 5a 6d 7d 8b 9e 10d

11c 12d 13a 14c15a 16c17c 18a19b 20a

21b 22b 23a 24b25c 26d27b 28c29a 30b

31b 32c 33a 34d35c 36a37a 38c39a 40c

41c 42b 43delete 44c 45d 46b 47c 48a49d 50b

51c 52a 53c 54a