Section 5: Double Displacement – Precipitation Reactions - Notes

Objectives:

• Predict and write equations for precipitation reactions.
• Write molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations.

Double Displacement Reactions:

• Double displacement reactions occur when ______exchange between two compounds.
• A double-displacement reaction follows the general form
• ______

Precipitation Reactions:

• Reactions that form a solid, called a ______, upon mixing two aqueous solutions are known as precipitation reactions.
• Example:
• Precipitation reactions do ______occur when mixing two aqueous solutions.
• Example:
• The key to predicting precipitation reactions is understanding that only ______form precipitates.
• Before mixing, KI(aq) and Pb(NO3)2(aq) are both ______in their respective solutions.
• The instant that the solutions are mixed, ______are present.
• In this case, KNO3 is ______, but PbI2 is ______. Consequently, PbI2precipitates.

Predicting Reactions:

1. Write an equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs (if any) when solutions of sodium carbonate and copper(II) chloride are mixed.
1. Combine the cation from one reactant with the anion from the other. Make sure to write correct (charge-neutral) formulas for the new ionic compounds.
1. Use the solubility rules to determine whether any of the potential new products are indeed insoluble.
1. If all of the potentially insoluble products are soluble, there will be no precipitate. Write NO REACTION next to the arrow.
1. One of the potentially insoluble products is insoluble, so write its formula as the product of the reaction, using (s) to indicate solid. Write the soluble product with (aq) to indicate aqueous.
1. Balance the equation.
• Practice:Use the solubility rules to predict what will happen when the following solutions are mixed. Write the balanced equation for any reaction that occurs.
• Na2SO4(aq) and Pb(NO3)2(aq)
• KNO3 (aq) and BaCl2(aq)
• Potassium hydroxide(aq) and Iron (III) nitrate(aq)

Ionic Equations:

• Ionic equations that show all of the particles in a solution as they actually exist are called ______.
• 2NaOH(aq) + CuCl2(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)
• Ions that do not participate in a reaction are called ______and are not usually written in ______.
• A reaction is only taking place if a solid, water, or a gas is formed!
• Formulas that include only the particles that participate in reactions are called ______
• 2NaOH(aq) + CuCl2(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)
• 2Na+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) + Cu2+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) → 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)
• Practice:Write chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for each of the following reactions that produce a precipitate.
• Aqueous solutions of potassium iodide and silver nitrate are mixed, forming the precipitate silver iodide.
• Aqueous solutions of aluminum chloride and sodium hydroxide are mixed, forming the precipitate aluminum hydroxide.
• Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and manganese (V) chloride are mixed.