38Protection, Support, and Movement


40 Immunity


1. You should know the general structure and functions of skin, as well as how it specifically aids in protecting the internal environment.

2. You should be able to compare and contrast the different types of animal skeletons.

3. You should know the general structure of the human skeletal system, human skeletal bones that represents the main functions of bones, as well as the structure of bone itself.

4. You should know the function parts of a lever, the three classes of levers, and how the function of levers relates to muscles and human made levers.

5. You should understand the hierarchical structure of the muscle from the observable muscle to the individual proteins that compose the sarcomere.

6. You should be familiar with the how the nervous system controls and communicates an action potential to the muscle cell, and how this stimulus is translated into the formation of cross-bridges and the actions of the sliding filament theory.

7. You should be familiar with the structure and functions of the circulatory system including the heart, the vascular system, and the blood that it contains.

8. You should be familiar with the electrical impulses and characterization of the hearts atrial and ventricular action and be able to analyze and deduce particular disfunctions of these structures.

9. You should be familiar with blood typing and transfusions, the formation of blot clots, how blood pressure is measured and its relationship to hypertension and atherosclerosis.

10. You should be familiar with the basis structure and function of the lymphatic system.

11. You should be familiar with the skin, non-specific, and specific responses and processes of the body to an invasion by pathogens.

12. You should be familiar with both the humoral and antibody immune responses with the action of T-cells and B-cells, including the mechanism by which B-cell produce a variety of antibodies or immunoglobulins.

13. You should understand how immunization relates to normal functioning of the immune system as well as how it helps the body fight disease.



keratinocytesmelanocytessweat glandsoil glands

hairvitamin Dcalcium landerhans cells

hydrostatic skeletonexoskeletonendoskeletonbone

compact bonespongy boneosteocyteshaversian system

red marrowyellow marrowaxial skeletonappendicular skeleton

skeletal jointssynovial jointsligamentsskull

rib cagevertebral columnpectoral girdlepelvic girdle

extremitiesskeletal muscletendonstriceps brachii

biceps brachiiquadraceps femorisbiceps femorismyofibril


H-Zoneactin filamentmyosin filamenttroponin

tropomyosincross-bridgeneuromuscular junctionsarcoplamic reticulum

T-Tubulescreatine phosphateATPlevers

class I leverclass II leverclass III levermechanical advantage

distance advantageorigininsertionfulcrum

loadforcemuscle tensionisometric contraction

isotonic contractionlengthening contraction motor unitmuscle twitch

summationmuscle fatigue

electrocardiogramPQRST waveopen circulationclosed circulation

systemic circuitpulmonary circuitlymphatic systemblood

plasmared blood cellserythrocyteswhite blood cells



plateletsABO blood typing Rh blood factortransfusions


capillariesvenulesveinshepatic portal vein

vena cavapulmonary veinaortapulmonary artery

heartright atriumright ventricleleft atrium

left ventriclevalvesmyocardiumsinoatrial pacemaker

atrioventricular nodebundle of HisPerkinje fiberssystolic pressure

diastolic pressurevasoconstrictionvasodilationbaroreceptors


tachycardiafibrillationblood clottingprothrombin

thrombinfibrinogenfibrinlymphatic system

tonsilsthymusspleenlymph nodes

pathogensmucous membranetearssaliva

lysozymebacterial faunanon-specific responseinflammation


mast cellsmarcrophagesrednesswarmth

swelling painfevercomplement proteins

immune responseB-lymphocytesT-lymphocytesantigen

antigen presentationMHC markersantigen-MHC complexhelper T cells

cytotoxic T cellsmemory T cellsmemory B cellsantibodies

perfoinsapoptosisnatural killer cellsimmunoglobulins


IgDantigen binding sitelight chainheavy chain

variable regionconstant regionimmune memorysecondary response

immunizationvaccineactive passive

allergiesautoimmune diseaseHIV AIDS