# 8.3 the Rectangular Coordinate System

## §8.3 The Rectangular Coordinate System

The following is the Rectangular Coordinate System.

A coordinate is a number associated with the x or y axis.

An ordered pair is a pair of coordinates, an x and a y, read in that order. An ordered pair names a specific point in the system. Each point is unique. An ordered pair is written (x,y)

The origin is where both the x and the y axis are zero. The ordered pair that describes the origin is (0,0).

The quadrants are the 4 sections of the system labeled counterclockwise from the upper right corner. The quadrants are named I, II, III, IV. These are the Roman numerals for one, two, three, and four. It is not acceptable to say one when referring to quadrant I, etc.

## Plotting Points

When plotting a point on the axis we first locate the x-coordinate and then the y-coordinate. Once both have been located, we follow them with our finger or our eyes to their intersection as if an imaginary line were being drawn from the coordinates.

Example:Plot the following ordered pairs and note their quadrants

a) (2,-2)b) (5,3)c) (-2,-5)

d) (-5,3)e) (0,-4)f) (1,0)

We label the points in the system, by following, with our fingers or eyes, back to the coordinates on the x and y axes. This is doing the reverse of what we just did. **When labeling a point, we must do so appropriately! To label a point correctly, we must label it with its ordered pair written in the fashion – (x,y).**

Example:Label the points on the coordinate system below.

A Linear Equation in Two Variables is an equation in the following form, whose solutions are ordered pairs. A straight line can graphically represent a linear equation in two variables.

ax + by = c

**a, b, & c are constants**

**x, y are variables**

**x & y both can not = 0**

Since a linear equation’s solution is an ordered pair, we can check to see if an ordered pair is a solution to a linear equation in two variables by substitution. Since the first coordinate of an ordered pair is the x-coordinate and the second the y-coordinate, we know to substitute the first for *x and the second for y. (If you ever come across an equation that is not written in x and y, and want to check if an ordered pair is a solution for the equation, assume that the variables are alphabetical, as in *x and y. For instance, 5d + 3b = 10 – b is equivalent to x and d is equivalent to y, unless otherwise specified.)

Notice that we said above about the solutions to a linear equation in two variables! A linear equation in two variables has an infinite number of solutions, since the equation represents a straight line, which stretches to infinity in either direction. An ordered pair can represent each point on a straight line, and there are infinite points on any line, so there are infinite solutions. *The trick is that there are only specific ordered pairs that are the solutions!*

Example:Check to see if the following is a solution to the linear equation.

a)y = -5x ; (-1, -5)

b)x + 2y = 9 ; (5,2)

c)x = 1 ; (0,1)

d)x = 1 ; (1, 10)

Along with checking to see if an ordered pair is a solution to an equation, we can also complete an ordered pair to make it a solution to a linear equation in two variables. The reason that we can do this is because every line is infinite, so at some point, it will cross each coordinate on each axis. **The way that we will do this is by plugging in the coordinate given and then solving for the missing coordinate.** Problems like this will come in two types – find one solution or find a table of solutions. Either way the problem will be solved in the exactly the same way. This will prepare us for finding our own solutions to linear equations in two variables so that we will be able to graph a line!

Example:Complete the ordered pairs to make it a solution for the linear

equation in two variables.

x 4y = 4 ; ( ,-2) , (4, )

Example:Complete the table of values for the linear equation

-2x + y = -1

x / y-2

-3

5

## HW §8.3

p.605-608 #2-50even & #51

## §8.4 Graphing Linear Equations

We have already said that a linear equation in two variables is of the form: ax + by = c, but what we didn’t specify was that this is referred to as the standard form of a linear equation in two variables. *Always remember that any linear equation in two variables has two variables that are raised to the first power only!*

An intercept is where a line crosses an axis. There are two types of intercepts for a line, an x-intercept and a y-intercept. An x-intercept is where the line crosses the x-axis and it has an ordered pair of the form (x,0). A y-intercept is where the line crosses the y-axis and it has an ordered pair of the form (0,y). Intercepts are usually easy points to find, and are therefore useful in graphing a linear equation in two variables.

**Finding the Y-intercept **

Step 1: Let x = 0

Step 2: Solve the equation for y

Step 3: Form the ordered pair (0,y) where y is the solution from step two.

**Finding the X-intercept **

Step 1: Let y = 0

Step 2: Solve the equation for x

Step 3: Form the ordered pair (x,0) where x is the solution from step two.

Example:Find the intercepts for the following lines

a)2x 4 = 4y

b)x y = 3

**Graphing a Linear Equation **

Step 1: Choose 3 “easy” numbers for either x or y (easy means that your choice either

* allows the term to become zero, or a whole a number, the intercepts may be 2!)*

Step 2: Solve the equation for the other value that you did not choose in step one. You

will solve for three values.

*Note: Think of steps one and two as the tables that you were solving in section one. In this section you are just choosing the given values. Remember that it is acceptable to choose any value in step one because a line is infinite and it will eventually contain each coordinate on the x and y axes.*

Step 3: Plot the 3 ordered pairs from steps 1 & 2 on a coordinate system and label them

Step 4: Draw a straight line through the 3 points.

Step 5: Label the line with its equation

Example: Graph the lines

a)4x + 2y = 8

b)-4x = 2 2y

## c) x + y = 1

Finally, we should discuss two special types of lines, the vertical line (straight up and down) and the horizontal line (straight left to right). These two types of lines have equations that do not appear, at first glance, to be linear equations in two variables, but they are!

Horizontal Line – Looks like the horizon

Form y = #

***No matter what x is, y is always a constant!!*

Example:Graph the following y = 3

Vertical Line –Straight up and down

Form x = #

***No matter what y is, x is always a constant!!*

Example:Graph the following x = -2

## HW §8.4

p. 617-622 #4-40even,#42-46even & #49

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