WHAT TO KNOW FOR CH.15, 16 & 17 EXAM
1.Where did Darwin go on his famous voyage of the HMS Beagle?
2. What did he notice on this voyage concerning life on Earth?
3. What did he collect and bring back home to England?
4.What were the geologic ideas of James Hutton & Charles Lyell & how did they influence Darwin’s thinking?
5.What was Lamarck’s theory of evolution called? Be able to describe this theory. Be able to describe how Lamarck would explain the evolution of long necks in giraffes. Be able to explain what modern biologists consider to be incorrect about Lamarck’s ideas.
6.What were the ideas of Thomas Malthus and how did they influence Darwin’s thoughts on evolution?
7.Who sent an essay to Darwin with a theory very much like his own?
8.What is artificial selection? What is it capable of doing to plants and animals of the world?
9.Why is variation an important element to Darwin’s idea of natural selection?
10.What did Darwin mean by the “struggle for existence”?
11.What is an adaptation? Be able to name some types of adaptations.
12What is mean by biological “fitness”?
13.What is meant by “common descent”?
14.What is natural selection?
15.Be able to explain how Darwin would explain the evolution of the long necks of giraffes without using the words “need” or “tried to change”
16.What are fossils? Be able to name some examples of the different types of fossils.
17.What are two groups of animals where there are lots of good fossil examples showing the evolution of the group? What do these fossils show for each of these groups?
18.What are vestigial organs? Name some examples. Why are they considered evidence of evolution?
19.What are homologous organs? Name some examples. How do they show common descent?
20.What are analogous structures? Name some examples.
21.What is convergent evolution? How can analogous structures show evidence of convergent evolution?
22.What is embryology? What organs do human embryos have before we are born that are gone by the time of birth?
23.How can proteins and nucleic acids be used as evidence of evolution?
24.What are paleontologists?
25.What kinds of information can the fossil record give to biologists?
26.What kind of rock are fossils usually found within?
27.Describe how a fossil of an animal could form. What type of animal would be more likely to become a fossil?
28.What are fossils so rare?
29.What is radioactive dating? How is it used to study evolution?
30.What is meant by the term “half-life”? How can this information be used to determine the age of a fossil?
31.What are the half-lives of: carbon-14, potassium-40, uranium-238?
32.What are the four eras of geologic time?
33.What are the three periods of the Mesosoic Era?
34.What era was the “Age of Reptiles”?
35.When did mammals become more common?
36.What is a gene pool? How can it be used to show evidence of evolution?
37.What is directional selection? Stabilizing selection? Disruptive selection?
38.What is speciation? What is a species?
39.What is reproductive isolation?
40.What are the different types of reproductive isolation?
41.Be able to give some examples of behavioral isolation, geographic isolation, temporal isolation.
42.Be able to explain the results of Peter & Rosemary Grant’s studies on the Galapagos finches.
43.What is adaptive radiation? How are Darwin’s finches an example of adaptive radiation?
44.How might one species of finch evolved into 13 species on the Galapagos Islands?
45.What is the estimated age of Earth?
46.What are meteorites & why might they be important for the evolution of life on Earth?
47.What was Oparin & Haldane’s hypothesis concerning the early Earth?
48.What was the "primordial soup"?
49.Describe Miller & Urey's experiment and know its importance.
50.What is the "bubble model" of chemical evolution?
51.Describe how complex organic molecules (like RNA) might have been able to form on the early Earth.
52.What are proteinoid microspheres?
53.What are microfossils?
54.How old are the oldest known rocks on Earth? The oldest known fossils? What were these earliest fossils like?
55.What are stromatolites?
56.What are cyanobacteria?
57.Where did the first oxygen in the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere come from?
58.What is the theory of endosymbiosis?
59.What are the two types of prokaryotes know today?
60.How old are the oldest eukaryotic fossils?
61.What are the six kingdoms of life?
62.How old are the oldest fossils of multicellular organisms?
63.What was the Cambrian Explosion? What happened during this time?
64.What are mass extinctions? How have they affected life on planet Earth?
65.What is the ozone layer? What is it important to life on Earth?
66.What were probably the first creatures on land?
67.Who were the first land animals?
68.What were the first vertebrates to evolve?
69.What are the adaptations of amphibians for life on land?
70.What are the adaptations of reptiles for life on dry land?
71.What are the unique adaptations of mammals?
72.When did mammals become more abundant on planet Earth?
73.What are some adaptations of birds?
74.What is Archeaopteryx and why it is important to the evolution of birds?