Unit 1. My future profession
Finishing up school young people face the choice of their lives, what career to pursue. If a young person wants to be a good doctor it is important to have certain qualities: emotional stability, a desire to help others, high intelligence, good health, and self-discipline. The physician should be able to communicate with people all day. Hemust continue to study new developments in medicine throughout his career.
The job of a general physician is very respectable. Today medical universities provide the best medical education and research. Every university trains highly qualified specialistswho successfully work in Russia and abroad. Physician specialties include anesthesiologist, dermatologist, gerontologist, ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, surgeon, OB/GYNs, etc.
Thus, to become a good specialist one must be ready for a long and demanding run. General physician is a doctor who deals with the diagnosis and treatment of common health problems or disorders, ranging from cold, cough, and nausea to chronic diseases such as jaundice, cholera, etc. He provides treatment in many forms including medication, procedures, surgery, or therapy. Besides he interprets diagnostic tests.
Many qualified physicians work in hospitals or in outpatient clinics, private offices or clinics or healthcare organizations. They work long and irregular hours. An average day involves seeing patients for a wide variety of reasons, anything from a general physical exam to treatment of a specific disease.Surgeons typically work in the hospital operating room performing surgeries.
In Russia all doctors must complete a six year course of study in the medical university. The training includes lectures, practical classes, laboratory studies and clinicaltraining. During the first 2 years students study fundamental disciplines, which are necessary for further training in clinics. These are biology, chemistry, physics, human anatomy, histology, Latin, foreign languages and others. In later years students take courses such as surgery, pathology, pharmacology, etc.
They attend clinics where they have bedside teaching. A clinical teacher and a group of learners see a patient, listen to the history (from patient or learner) and discuss diagnosis, diagnostic or therapeutic options. Bedside teaching improves students’ history taking, examination skills and knowledge of clinical ethics. Students are trained in various fields of medicine such as internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, surgery.
After completion of the 6year course and passing state examinations the graduates receive their diplomas. After graduation from the medical university students are trained in the internship or residency. They can also take the postgraduate course in different fields of medicine. They get specialization, improve their knowledge and skills and work on their theses.
- tofacethechoice – встречаться лицом к лицу с выбором
- whatcareertopursue – с какой профессией связать свой жизненный путь
- a desire to help others – желание помогать другим
- to communicate with people – общатьсяслюдьми
- to study new developments in medicine – изучатьновыедостижениявмедицине
- OB/GYN (obstetrician/gynecologist) – акушер-гинеколог
- thus – таким образом
- to be ready for a long and demanding run – бытьготовымкдолгомуитрудномупути
- to deal with the diagnosis and treatment – иметьделосдиагностикойилечением
- commondisorders, diseases – распространенные нарушения, заболевания
- cold, cough, nausea, jaundice, cholera – простуда, кашель, тошнота, желтуха, холера
- tointerpretdiagnostictests – расшифровывать диагностические исследования
- outpatientclinics, privateoffices, healthcareorganizations – поликлиники, частные кабинеты, организации здравоохранения
- an average day involves – обычныйденьвключает
- a general physical exam – общийфизикальныйосмотр
- to perform surgeries – выполнять операции
- to complete the course – закончитькурс (изучениепредмета) to take courses – изучатькурсы (предметы)
- to attend clinics – посещатьклиники
- bedsideteaching – процесс обучения, который проходит в небольших группах у постели больного
- to improve history taking – совершенствовать (улучшать) сбор анамнеза
- examinationskills - навыки осмотра больного
- the graduates – выпускники
- to receive the diploma – получатьдиплом
- internship, residency – интернатура, ординатура
- to take the postgraduate course –обучатьсяваспирантуре
- to workonthesis – работать над диссертацией
Answer the questions to the text:
- What qualities must a good doctor have?
- Is the job of a general physician very respectable?
- What physician specialties do you know?
- What does a general physician deal with?
- In what forms does he provide treatment?
- Where can qualified physicians work?
- What are the responsibilities of a physician during his working day?
- How long does a course of studyin the medical university last?
- What disciplines do students study during the first 2 years?
- What courses do students take in later years?
- Why do students attend clinics?
- How does bedside teaching help the learners?
- When do the graduates receive their diplomas?
- Do students continue their education after graduation from the medical university?
- When and why did you begin to consider medicine as a career?
Unit 2. ChelyabinskStateMedicalAcademy
ChelyabinskStateMedicalAcademy (ChelSMA) is an educational institution designed to train physicians with the clinical skills and knowledge for providing modern healthcare. ChelSMA was founded in 1944 on the basis of Kiev medical institute. The first rector was professor Fyodorovsky. For 30 years the academy was headed by professor Glubokov. Nowadays the rector of ChelSMA is professor I.I. Dolgushin.
The academy trains specialists in different fields of medicine for the South Ural region. Nowadays there are 7 faculties in the academy. These are the faculty of General Medicine, the faculty of Pediatrics, the faculty of Disease Prevention, the faculty of Dentistry, Pharmaceutical faculty, Social Work faculty and MedicalCollege. The dean of the faculty I study at is ……. .
Today, ChelyabinskStateMedicalAcademy is a state-of-the-art facility. The faculty of the academy numbers about 400 professors, associate professors, teachers, clinicians and scientific investigators recognized in teaching and research activities. About 50 departments in various theoretical and clinical subjects take part in training young specialists.
The basic science curriculum is taught in traditional lecture style classes with small group problem seminars and laboratory exercises. The students gain up-to-date knowledge in different fields of anatomy, physiology, surgery, gynecology, internal diseases and public health.Several teaching hospitals provide lots of opportunities for clinical teaching programs.
Having completed the course, all the students take end-of-term tests and exams. On completion the students receive the Specialist Diploma.ChelSMA gives graduates an opportunity to work as a physician in hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers and at various health care institutions.
The Academy carries out research that will enhance the health, quality of life, and the experience of population care. The scientific school of ChelSMA was founded by L.Y. Ebert. Today, research activities take place in the field of immunology, cardiovascular pathology, hematology, pathology of the respiratory system in children, oncology and others.
The recognized scientists contributed much to scientific research are D.A. Glubokov, V. Turygin, R.I. Lifshits, I.I. Dolgushin, S.N Teplova, Yu.M. Zakharov, V.L. Kovalenko, N. S. Tyurina, N.N. Rusanova, I.A. Andrievskikh, V.N. Bordunovsky and many others.
Moreover, the scientists of our Academy take part in international programs. They exchange knowledge and experience with their colleagues from Canada, USA, Great Britain and Japan. The academy encourages the students to be engaged in research during their study in ChelSMA.
- an educational institution – учебноеучреждение
- to be designed – бытьсозданным
- toprovidemodernhealthcare – обеспечить современное медицинское обслуживание
- to be founded - бытьоснованным
- to be headed by somebody – возглавлятьсякем-либо
- faculty - 1. факультет; 2. преподавательскийштат
- the dean of the faculty – деканфакультета
- a state-of-the-art facility – современныйкомплекс
- an associate professor - доцент
- recognizedinteachingandresearchactivities – признанный в учебной и исследовательской работе
- department - кафедра
- to gain up-to-date knowledge – приобретатьновейшиезнания
- teaching hospitals – учебные больницы
- to take end-of-term tests and exams – сдаватьзачетыиэкзамены
- togivesmbanopportunity – предоставитьк-либовозможность
- tocarryoutresearch – проводить научное исследование
- respiratory system – дыхательная система
- to contribute much to – делатьбольшойвкладв
- to exchange knowledge and experience – обмениватьсязнаниямииопытом
- to encourage the students to be engaged in research - поощрятьстудентовзаниматьсяисследованием
Answer the questions:
- Where do you study?
- Is ChelyabinskStateMedicalAcademy an educational or medical institution?
- When was ChelSMA founded?
- How many faculties are there in the academy?
- Who was the first rector?
- Who are the rector of ChelSMA and the dean of your faculty nowadays?
- What can you say about the teaching staff of the academy?
- In what fields of medicine do students gain up-to-date knowledge?
- When do the students take end-of-term tests and exams?
- Where do the graduates have an opportunity to work as physicians?
- In what fields of medicine do research activities take place?
- What outstanding scientists of ChelSMA do you know?
- Do our scientists collaborate with foreign colleagues?
- Do you think it is difficult to get medical education?
Unit 3. Polyclinic
The basic principle of the polyclinic is accessible and free specialized medical services. Large cities commonly have separate polyclinics for children and adults, as well as clinics with specializations such as women’s health care, mental or dental diseases. A polyclinic is a place where a wide range of health care services can be obtained without the need for an overnight stay. Polyclinics are sometimes co-located with a hospital.
A team of experienced healthcare providers works in any polyclinic: therapists, neurologists, urologists, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, ENTs, ophthalmologists, surgeons, physiotherapists, dentists, radiologists and laboratory diagnosticians.
People usually go to the polyclinic to get treatment, prescription and medical advice. If a person falls ill or he’s got a high temperature or blood pressure, he will ring up his local polyclinic and call in a doctor.
In the polyclinic the patient first of all meets a receptionist. The receptionist asks clarifying questions and makes an appointment with a specialist.
During the appointment the physician asks the patient about his complaints and his health in general. Then he investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. The main organ systems are investigated by inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation. This is called physical examination.
After a thorough health evaluation the physician makes a diagnosis and decides what type of therapy is the most suitable for the case. To confirm the diagnosis he needs the findings of laboratory tests, chest x-rays, CT or ultrasound scans, ECGs and others.
Everything is registered in the medical card.
Another important member of the medical professional team is a nurse. She is a multiskilled person who assists the physician. Her duties typically include preparing treatment and examination room, assisting with minor procedures, giving injections, performing electrocardiogram. Besides she applies dressings, performs routine vaccinations, blood pressure checks, immunization for foreign travel.
In addition to treatment planning, the specialist offers long-term follow-up and monitoring of health indicators. One of the duties of a physician or a nurse is to provide a nursing service to patients at home. The nurse carries out the doctor’s administrations: blood pressure checks, administration of injections, etc.
- accessible services – доступные услуги
- to obtain a wide range – получитьширокийспектр
- a team of experienced healthcare providers – командаопытныхмедиков
- ENT – ear, nose, throat specialist - оториноларинголог
- high temperature or blood pressure – высокаятемператураилидавление
- to ringupthe localpolyclinic – позвонить в местную поликлинику
- to call in a doctor – вызватьврача
- a receptionist - регистратор
- to ask clarifying questions – задавать уточняющие вопросы
- to make an appointment – записатьнаприем
- to ask the patient about complaints – спрашиватьпациентаначтоон жалуется
- to investigate for signs of disease – обследовать, чтобывыявитьпризнакиболезни
- inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation – осмотр, пальпация, перкуссия, аускультация
- physical examination – физикальный осмотр
- to decide what type of therapy is the most suitable – решитькакоелечениесамоеподходящее
- to confirm the diagnosis - подтвердитьдиагноз
- the findings of laboratory tests, chest x-rays – результатыанализов, рентгеновскогоисследования
- CT or ultrasound scans, ECG - компьютернаятомография (КТ), УЗИ, ЭКГ
- to assist with minor procedures – ассистироватьвовремя«малых» операций
- to give injections – поставитьинъекции
- to apply dressings – наложитьповязку
- bloodpressurecheck – проверка кровяного давления
- inadditionto – кроме, в дополнение к
- toofferlong-termfollow-upandmonitoring – предлагать длительное последующее наблюдение и контроль
Answer the questions:
- What is the basic principle of the polyclinic?
- What kind of polyclinics do large cities commonly have?
- Where can health care services be obtained without the need for an overnight stay?
- Polyclinics are sometimes co-located with a hospital, aren’t they?
- What specialists work in the polyclinic?
- Did you consult any specialist?
- Why do people visit polyclinics?
- Who made an appointment when you visited your local polyclinic?
- What are the duties of a receptionist?
- What does any healthcare provider do during the appointment?
- What are the main investigations?
- What helps the healthcare provider to confirm the diagnosis?
- Everything is recorded in the medical card, isn’t it?
- Who helps the healthcare provider in his work?
- What are the duties of a nurse?
Unit 4. Inpatient care
Nowadays a hospital is a medical institution that provides medical care, diagnosis, specialized treatment and accommodation of the patients. Some hospitals specialize in a particular condition (e.g., Oncology or Tuberculosis dispensary) or in a type of patients (children, war veterans, etc.).Patients are admitted to a hospital when they are extremely ill, have had a severe trauma or an accident.They will stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months.
Together with different medical specialists doctors and nurses make up the team. They establish a treatment plan and post-treatment recommendations to help recovery. Any patient can get medical treatment in Surgery, Therapy, Cardiology units as well as Intensive Care unit (ICU), Accident and Emergency (A&E), Infectious diseases units.
When a patient is admitted to the hospital, a hospital receptionist will assist him. She’ll fill in a patient’s card: patient’s name, address, date of birth (DOB), occupation, reasons for admission, family and medical history. Then the patient will be sent to the unit and ward.
In the hospital the working day starts early. Every morning at about 9 o’clock the doctors make ward rounds. The doctor asks every patient about his complaints and examines him. To determine a disease every doctor must know the symptoms and the pathogenesis of disease. Patients may present different symptoms such as headache, fever, rash, bleeding, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight, increased heartbeat rate, etc.
To make the correct diagnosis the doctor will check some readings: temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. In addition he will ask to send blood and urine to the laboratory for tests. Some instrumental studies will help him make the diagnosis too. The most common studies are x-ray, ultrasound, CT and MRI scans and endoscopy.
After the doctor makes the diagnosis, he will administer treatment. He’ll prescribe the patient different drugs, administer physiotherapy. He may insist on a strict bed regimen or a light diet. After that the doctor will document all procedures, test results, changes in patient’s condition and administrations.
All patients must receive an adequate treatment and care. The nurses will carry out doctor’s administrations. They assist patients, move them wheelchairs. They give tablets, intravenous (IV) and intramuscular injections, take temperature and measure blood pressure.
All medical staff treats patients with great attention and care.
- to provide medical care, treatment and accommodation – предоставитьмедицинскийуход, лечениеипребывание
- to be admitted to a hospital – поступитьвбольницу
- a severe trauma or an accident – тяжелая травма или несчастный случай (авария)
- to make up the team – составлятькоманду
- recovery - выздоровление
- as well as – также как
- IntensiveCareunit (ICU) – отделение интенсивной терапии
- AccidentandEmergency (AE) – отделение экстренной медицинской помощи
- to fill in a patients’ cards – заполнитькартубольного
- to make ward rounds – делатьобходпалат
- to determine a disease – определитьболезнь
- to make the correct diagnosis – поставитьправильныйдиагноз
- themostcommonstudies – самые распространенные исследования
- magneticresonanceimaging (MRI) – магнитно-резонансная томография (МРТ)
- to administer treatment – назначитьлечение
- to prescribe drugs – прописать лекарства
- to insist on a strict bed regimen – настаивать на строгом постельном режиме
- a light diet – легкая диета
- to receive an adequate care – получитьсоответствующийуход
- to carry out doctor’s administrations – выполнитьназначенияврача
- to take temperature – измеритьтемпературу
- to measure blood pressure – измеритькровяноедавление
- to treat with attention and care – лечитьсвниманиемизаботой
Answer the questions:
- What medical services does a hospital provide?
- In what cases can patients be admitted to the hospital?
- Who makes up the team?
- What units are there in a hospital?
- Who will assist the patients when they are admitted to the hospital?
- What information will a receptionist fill in patients’ cards?
- What does the doctor do during the ward round?
- What symptoms can a patient have?
- What readings will the doctor check to make a correct diagnosis?
- What instrumental studies help the doctor make the diagnosis?
- What administrations can the doctor prescribe?
- Do patients receive an adequate treatment?
- What doctor’s administrations do the nurses carry out?
- How must medical staff treat patients?
Unit 5. Community pharmacy
Nowadays pharmacies have become multifunctional institutions. They range from the large chains with shops on every street to small individually owned pharmacies in small communities. Pharmacies are commonly called the chemist’s in Australia, New Zealand and the UK; or the drugstore in North America.
People go to the pharmacy if they feel bad or their relatives get sick and need medicines and vitamins or medical devices. A community pharmacy provides a wide range of pharmaceuticals and parapharmaceuticals, disposables, surgical and life-saving products.Any pharmacy can offer a great number of medicines: analgesics, sprays, tablets, syrups and multivitamins. There is a wide range of products including blood pressure monitors, thermometers, bandages & dressings, cosmetics, baby wipes and even pet care items.
A working day at a pharmacy usually starts at 8 a.m. and lasts until 7 or 8 p.m. Several consultant pharmacists work here. Every pharmacist has a number of responsibilities. During their working day they compound and dispense medicines, counsel patients on medicine proper use, provide information about new drugs. Of course they help patients understand the instructions. Therefore, a registered pharmacist must possess skills, knowledge and understanding of basic principles. This will help him to dispense appropriate drugs for the customers.
All the pharmaceuticals are divided into prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) ones. All of them must be supplied with labels. The dose to be taken and the directions for administration are also indicated on a label. Indicating the dose and the name of any medicine is necessary for pharmacists, GPs, nurses and patients themselves. It prevents confusing different remedies, some of which are poisonous. Their overdosage may cause unfavorable reactions and sometimes even death. Labels may be of two types: cautionary and auxiliary. Cautionary label, for example, is: "Avoid contact with eyes!", and auxiliary label is: "Shake well before using!"
The state board of pharmacy controls compounding of any prescription medicament and dispensing of drugs.
1.multifunctional institution – многофункциональноеучреждение
2.individually owned pharmacies – частныеаптеки
3.to be commonly called - частоназывается