Simcyp Limited, a Certara Company

Simcyp Limited, a Certara Company

Khaled Abduljalil, Trevor N. Johnson, and Amin Rostami-Hodjegan. Fetal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Biometry and Gross Composition.Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

(Simcyp Limited, A Certara Company)

Table of Tables

Table 1: Fetal body length (cm)

Table 2. Embryo/fetal total body weight (g).

Table 3. Fetal body surface area.

Table 4. Crown-rump length, CRL (cm) for male and female fetuses

Table 5. fetal head circumference HC (cm)

Table 6. fetal abdominal circumference, AC (cm)

Table 7. Reported equations for fetal composition

Table 8. Fetal body composition

Table 9. Fetal Intracellular and extracellular water during development.

Table 10. Fetal total protein weight (g).

Table 1: Fetal body length (cm)
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / Reference
GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / mean±SD (n)
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 / 0.10
0.11
0.24
0.33
0.5
1.3
2
2.5
3.5
4.5 / 16
23
28
30 / 12.5
22.5
23
24 / [1]
3
6
7
8
9
10 / 0.01 (3)
0.3 (20)
0.8 (24)
1.5 (33)
2.1 (15)
2.9 (21) / [2]
Measured via Solid reconstructions
and photographs
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13 / 0.34±0.03 (11)
0.51±0.04 (11)
1.51±0.12 (11)
2.51±0.20 (11)
3.52±0.27 (11)
4.52±0.35 (11)
5.52±0.43 (11)
6.52±0.51 (11) / [3]Ultrasound measurements
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 28.7 ± 3.1(9)
30.8 ± 1.9(61)
31.9 ± 1.9(226)
33.3 ±2.0(313)
34.5 ± 2.3(466)
35.7 ± 2.6(510)
36.7 ± 3.0(632) / [4]
For males
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 29.5 ± 1.0(4)
30.0 ± 1.9(43)
31.1 ± 1.9(157)
32.5 ± 2.3(273)
33.7 ± 2.3(389)
34.9 ± 2.5(456)
36.1 ± 2.9(512) / [4]
For females
26
27
28 / 35.1±0.71(9)
35.8±1.5(17)
36.8±2.2(26) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 37.9±2.3(18)
39.0±2.2(37)
40.3±2.0(41)
41.4±1.8(43)
42.4±1.7(41)
43.6±1.7(46)
44.8±1.9(48)
46.0±2.0(49)
47.0±2.1(45)
48.0±2.2(65)
49.0±2.3(105)
49.9±2.3(192)
50.5±2.2(123)
50.6±2.2(79)
50.3±2.4(13) / [5]
For males
26
27
28 / 34.9±1.6(5)
35.3±2.0(12)
36.4±2.3(17) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 38.0±2.0(23)
39.4±1.7(28)
40.5±2.0(23)
41.6±2.5(39)
42.7±2.5(40)
43.5±2.3(56)
44.3±2.0(48)
45.1±1.8(47)
46.1±1.8(47)
47.3±1.9(62)
48.5±1.8(60)
49.3±1.7(193)
49.8±1.7(135)
49.9±1.8(71)
50.0±1.6(34) / [5]
For females
28 / 36 ± 5.1 (19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 39 ± 6.1 (13)
40 ± 5.1 (23)
42 ± 6.6 (26)
42 ± 6.6 (40)
44 ± 6.1 (77)
47 ± 5.1 (105)
48 ± 4.8 (169)
48 ± 4.1 (277)
48 ± 3.6 (502)
49 ± 3.1 (1187)
50 ± 3.1 (1871)
50 ± 3.1 (1964)
50 ± 3.1 (1044) / [6]
For males
28 / 37 ± 5.1 (19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 37 ± 6.6 (19)
39.5 ± 5.6 (20)
40 ± 9.8 (25)
41 ± 6.3 (25)
45 ± 6.4 (68)
47 ± 6.5 (86)
47 ± 4.6 (160)
47 ± 4.6 (263)
48 ± 4.1 (584)
49 ± 3.6 (1154)
49 ± 3.1 (1841)
50 ± 3.1 (1834)
50 ± 3.1 (956) / [6]
For females
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 30.5 ± 1.6(153)
31.5 ± 1.8(451)
32.7 ± 2.1(722)
34.2 ± 2.2(881)
35.6 ± 2.4(1030)
37.2 ± 2.5(1281) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 38.6 ± 2.5(1505)
39.9 ± 2.8(1992)
41.5 ± 2.5(2460)
42.8 ± 2.7(3677)
44.3 ± 2.6(5014)
45.6 ± 2.6(7291)
46.8 ± 2.7(6952)
48 ± 2.8(7011)
49.2 ± 2.7(6692)
50.2 ± 2.7(8786)
51 ± 2.4(8324)
51.6 ± 2.4(7235)
52.1 ± 2.4(2538) / [7]
For males
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 29.9 ± 1.8(133)
31 ± 1.7 (438)
32.3 ± 2.0(603)
33.4 ± 2.2(773)
35 ± 2.3 (966)
36.4 ± 2.5(1187) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 37.8 ± 2.7(1254)
39.6 ± 2.6(1606)
40.9 ± 2.6(2044)
42.1 ± 2.6(3007)
43.7 ± 2.6(4186)
45 ± 2.6(5936)
46 ± 2.7(5082)
47.2 ± 2.8(4690)
48.4 ± 2.8(4372)
49.5 ± 2.6(5755)
50.1 ± 2.5(5978)
50.7 ± 2.4(5529)
51.3 ± 2.4(1906) / [7]
For females
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 30.29 ±2.62(35)
31.69 ±2.66(70)
33.09 ±2.70(68)
34.51 ±2.73(74)
35.96 ±2.73(103)
37.44 ±2.72(125) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 38.92 ±2.68(143)
40.4 ±2.62(201)
41.86 ±2.54(266)
43.27 ±2.44(436)
44.63 ±2.34(707)
45.9 ±2.23(1239)
47.07 ±2.13(2283)
48.13 ±2.03(4824)
49.1 ±1.93(11802)
49.95 ±1.83(34330)
50.65 ±1.76(69622)
51.3 ±1.74(79585)
51.86 ±1.75(51910)
52.29 ±1.79(13133)
52.57 ±1.84(198) / [8]
For males
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 29.68 ±2.31(34)
31.07 ±2.42(41)
32.47 ±2.53(69)
33.89 ±2.62(65)
35.33 ±2.70(86)
36.79 ±2.75(101) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 38.27 ±2.75(100)
39.75 ±2.72(139)
41.21 ±2.65(196)
42.61 ±2.54(350)
43.94 ±2.41(466)
45.2 ±2.27(940)
46.37 ±2.13(1736)
47.43 ±2.01(3873)
48.34 ±1.91(9908)
49.1 ±1.81(30796)
49.75 ±1.73(67317)
50.41 ±1.69(79532)
50.93 ±1.69(52195)
51.35 ±1.73(12336)
51.66 ±1.79(201) / [8]
For females
37
38
39
40
41 / 49.4±2.0 (52)
49.4±1.7 (121)
50.5±1.9 (124)
50.8±1.7 (171)
51.4±2.2 (124) / [9]
For males
37
38
39
40
41 / 47.4±2.5 (48)
48.6±1.8 (118)
49.4±1.7 (154)
50.2±1.8 (167)
50.5±1.6 (104) / [9]
For females
11–12
13–14 / 9.17 ±1.46 (6)
13.18 ± 1.54 (20) / 15–16
17–18
19–20
21–22
23–24
25–26
27–28 / 17.04 ± 1.62 (60)
20.74 ± 1.7 (81)
24.29 ± 1.78 (79)
27.68 ± 1.86 (113)
30.92 ± 1.94 (109)
34.00 ±2.02 (58)
36.93 ±2.1 (24) / 29–30
31–32
33–34
35–36
37–38
39–40
41–42 / 39.70 ±2.18 (11)
42.32 ±2.26 (12)
44.78 ±2.34 (10)
47.09 ±2.42 (10)
49.25 ±2.49 (18)
51.25 ±2.57 (35)
53.09 ±2.65 (14) / [10]
Autopsy,
males and females
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27
28-29 / 27±5.6 (41)
29.3±6.6 (87)
32.4±5.6 (117)
34.7±5.8 (145)
37.9±8.2 (141) / 30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41
42-43 / 39.7±8.6 (87)
42.0±8.4 (90)
44.0±11.6 (72)
47.7±10 (108)
49.3±9.2 (94)
51.5±7.8 (137)
52.9±9.6 (24) / [11]
Autopsy,
males and females
24-26
27-28 / 34.6±2.46 (13)
37.3±1.84 (20) / 29-30
31-32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44+ / 38.8±1.21 (12)
41.8±1.48 (11)
44.3±1.59 (11)
45±1.86 (18)
46.2±1.32 (13)
46.6±1.56 (20)
49.2±2.21 (20)
50.2±2.13 (20)
50.2±2.12 (25)
51.4±1.97 (47)
51.8±1.77 (27)
51.0±2.89 (20)
51.3±2.06 (11)
51.0±1.68 (12) / [12]
For both males and females
12
13
14 / 9.3±1.0 (9)
11.4±1.0 (16)
13.5±1.5 (17) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 / 15.4±1.4 (40)
17.3±1.5 (36)
19.2±1.6 (47)
21.0±1.6 (44)
22.7±1.4 (44)
24.4±1.8 (64)
26.0±2.1 (35)
27.5±2.1 (50)
29.0±1.8 (40)
30.4±1.4 (30)
31.8±1.8 (24)
33.1±1.6 (13) / [13]
Autopsy , males and females
12
13
14 / 9.99 ±0.92 (9)
12.0±1.02 (6)
14.0±1.12 (15) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 15.94 ± 1.22 (18)
17.84 ± 1.32 (19)
19.71 ± 1.42 (19)
21.53 ± 1.53 (35)
23.31 ± 1.63 (51)
25.06 ± 1.73 (55)
26.76 ± 1.84 (56)
28.42 ± 1.94 (59)
30.05 ± 2.04 (29)
31.63 ± 2.15 (6)
33.17 ± 2.26 (8)
34.68 ± 2.36 (6)
36.14 ± 2.47 (6)
37.57 ± 2.57 (4) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 38.95 ± 2.68 (5)
40.30 ± 2.79 (5)
41.60 ± 2.90 (3)
42.87 ± 3.01 (3)
44.09 ± 3.11 (14)
45.28 ± 3.22 (9)
46.42 ± 3.33 (8)
47.52 ± 3.44 (7)
48.59 ± 3.55 (20)
49.62 ± 3.67 (19)
50.60 ± 3.78 (19)
51.55 ± 3.89 (17)
52.45 ± 4.00 (9) / [14]
Autopsy, males and females
Full term / 50.8±2.5 (male)
50.0±2.5(female) / [15]

GA= gestational (post-menstrual) age in weeks

Table 2. Embryo/fetal total body weight (g).
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / notes / Reference
GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n)
0.5
1
1.7
1.9
2.3 / 0.008±0.054 (3)
0.036±0.028 (6)
0.44±0.09 (5)
3.2±3.216 (3)
13.0±9.02 (2) / [16]
1.7
2 / 0.93
2.43 / [17]
3.5
6
7
8 / 0.15 (2)
0.50 (2)
1.2 (1)
2.0 (3) / [18]
6
7 / 0.51±0.16 (5)
1.58±0.6 (8) / [19]
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 / 0.07±0.03 (10)
0.40±0.22 (10)
0.99±0.45 (14)
2.31±0.62 (13)
4.62±1.36 (11)
8.65±2.29 (11)
14.25±3.85 (3) / values in ml, measured using 3D (VOCAL) / [20]
7
8
9
10 / 0.20±0.23 (16)
1.11±0.36 (16)
2.08±0.75 (16)
5.12±1.57 (16) / values in cm3, measured using 3D (XI VOCAL) / [21]
6
7
8
9
10 / 0.03±0.02 (31)
0.36±0.08 (36)
0.96±0.72 (44)
1.88±0.44 (41)
3.57±0.50 (24) / Values in cm3, measured using 3D US / [22]
7
8
9
10 / 0.39±0.23 (10)
1.14±1.09 (13)
2.18±1.97 (14)
5.44±4.86 (13) / Values in cm3, measured using 3D US / [23]
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 / 0.042±0.034(3)
0.310±0.137(15)
1.017±0.352(18)
2.45±0.79 (19)
5.35±1.41 (18)
9.71±2.58 (7)
22.2± 5.69 (8) / Values in cm3, measured using 3D US / [24]
6
7
8
9 / 0.53 (0.1–1.0) (11)
0.44 (0.3–0.9) (14)
1.1 (0.3–2.4) (16)
2.35 (1.2–3.6) (9) / Values in cm3 given as
mean ( range) measured using 3D US VOCAL / [25]
7.4
8.4
9.4
10.4 / 0.35±0.02 (22)
0.98±0.02 (22)
2.88±0.04 (22)
6.20±0.09 (22) / values in ml, measured using 3D / [26]
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 539 ± 63(13)
636 ± 99(83)
701 ± 103(269)
794 ± 132(365)
898 ± 154(524)
993 ± 189(563)
1097 ± 232(672) / Values for male in grams / [4]
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 519 ± 69(7)
586 ± 78(60)
655 ± 92(197)
745 ± 124(314)
833 ± 159(436)
929 ± 186(482)
1049 ± 222(537) / Values for female in grams
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 349±60(230)
418±66(335)
505±76(401)
595±82(395)
681±105(640)
783±131(715)
894±152(937)
1016±194(1069)
1146±217(1345) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1301±252(1524)
1474±283(2105)
1666±304(2576)
1867±331(3895)
2106±371(5599)
2340±385(9824)
2585±408(16054)
2826±428(32747)
3093±449(73986)
3344±439(230003)
3486±430(293109)
3632±434(409976)
3769±438(192154)
3832±462(19804)
3761±540(797) / Values for male in grams for live birth fetus / [27]
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 333±65(197)
386±69(256)
474±72(333)
558±89(376)
637±95(528)
730±128(599)
825±166(809)
949±188(879)
1073±230(1136) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1215±252(1188)
1394±277(1656)
1582±302(2052)
1772±322(3119)
2014±356(4421)
2242±375(8108)
2486±403(13104)
2720±420(28386)
2979±439(66928)
3215±425(214002)
3351±415(282046)
3493±416(398257)
3619±424(181434)
3665±445(17701)
3579±463(801) / Values for female in grams for live birth fetus
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 605 ±104(50)
692 ±125(89)
788 ±150(93)
897 ±178(98)
1025 ±209(121)
1174 ±242(160) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1342 ±275(180)
1530 ±308(238)
1738 ±338(286)
1965 ±364(478)
2210 ±389(742)
2468 ±413(1271)
2731 ±434(2318)
2991 ±448(4865)
3239 ±450(11841)
3456 ±441(34429)
3625 ±430(69795)
3766 ±430(79761)
3883 ±436(52047)
3968 ±441(13167)
4035 ±448(198) / Values for male in grams / [8]
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 563 ±105(42)
649 ±125(52)
744 ±148(87)
852 ±175(85)
974 ±205(103)
1115 ±237(118) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1277 ±270(122)
1460 ±303(161)
1663 ±336(221)
1886 ±367(374)
2126 ±396(496)
2381 ±421(970)
2642 ±440(1760)
2899 ±450(3897)
3132 ±446(9954)
3326 ±431(30884)
3483 ±418(67489)
3624 ±414(79707)
3735 ±418(52340)
3815 ±428(12375)
3881 ±443(202) / Values for female in grams
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 132±10 (9)
159±20 (15)
202±18 (17)
249±24 (80)
317±40 (64)
366±40 (480)
429±52 (255)
500±62 (183)
613±71 (51)
727±104 (87)
854±89 (42)
935±110 (49)
1137±199 (39)
1289±186 (87) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 1478±229 (65)
1655±181 (61)
1830±274 (80)
2016±249 (134)
2243±322 (109)
2468±324 (188)
2661±441 (118)
2938±471 (146)
3085±529 (102)
3290±559 (69)
3443±486 (33) / Values for male in grams / [28]
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 129±10 (8)
164±18 (11)
195±21 (23)
244±31 (71)
312±38 (76)
356±41 (445)
419±47 (218)
497±60 (172)
572±71 (52)
686±109 (78)
792±82 (35)
926±141 (30)
1065±166 (39)
1215±192 (83) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 1395±217 (40)
1585±260 (61)
1796±259 (70)
1975±228 (147)
2192±317 (109)
2385±305 (196)
2583±404 (110)
2798±441 (122)
2959±433 (107)
3175±480 (81)
3258±433 (42) / Values for female in grams
26
27
28 / 909±91(9)
960±124 (16)
1063±156 (29) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1191±197 (21)
1322±243 (43
1472±246 (41)
1662±216 (43)
1865±197 (45)
2050±205 (46)
2211±247 (47)
2376±327 (48)
2592±435 (47)
2864±499 (65)
3145±481 (101)
3362±438 (187)
3466±396 (123)
3480±365 (79)
3476±357 (13) / Values for male in grams for live birth fetus / [5]
26
27
28 / 906±134(5)
942±115(14)
1032±160(19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1160±173(25)
1307±174(31)
1466±182(24)
1640±219(42)
1805±274(40)
1942±325(56)
2083±348(48)
2256±362(48)
2477±434(47)
2766±491(62)
3053±459(103)
3234±423(124)
3313±448(137)
3331±507(72)
3318±548(34) / Values for female in grams for live birth fetus
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42 / 1980±450(67)
2177±450(88)
2572±450(150)
2736±450(247)
2891±450(428)
3087±450(986)
3245±450(2292)
3374±450(4288)
3492±450(4798)
3542±450(2731)
3568±450(1032) / Values for male in grams / [29]
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42 / 1995±450(43)
2240±450(64)
2449±450(98)
2623±450(208)
2859±450(376)
2974±450(745)
3106±450(2003)
3241±450(3883)
3331±450(4707)
3409±450(2832)
3383±450(978) / Values for female in grams
24
25
26
27
28 / 643±123(126)
758±141(118)
857±156(172)
973±173(177)
1123±194(239) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1288±215(265)
1464±239(313)
1657±263(148)
1853±286(205)
2065±311(256)
2285±334(422)
2516±358(653)
2770±388(1265)
3019±405(2499)
3255±405(6387)
3422±390(10706)
3586±389(14230)
3727±389(11571)
3786±386(1496)
3807±383(95) / Values for male in grams / [30]
24
25
26
27
28 / 618±125(120)
701±142(115)
809±165(179)
930±190(174)
1046±208(246) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1202±231(245)
1373±256(317)
1556±276(136)
1736±295(193)
1942±315(239)
2176±337(374)
2422±361(644)
2663±383(1048)
2893±393(2006)
3122±393(4630)
3293±381(8699)
3435±380(12644)
3570±382(11624)
3634±381(1627)
3650±381(107) / Values for female in grams
28 / 900 ± 260 (19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42 / 1350 ± 217 (13)
1580 ± 283 (23)
1800 ± 353 (26)
1680 ± 408 (40)
2050 ± 366 (77)
2550 ± 352 (105)
2600 ± 366 (169)
2700 ± 357 (277)
2900 ± 393 (502)
3000 ± 359 (1187)
3170 ± 344 (1871)
3350 ± 356 (1964)
3500 ± 369 (1044)
3650 ± 351 (332) / Values for male in grams / [6]
28 / 1150 ± 255 (19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42 / 1250 ± 288 (19)
1425 ± 280 (20)
1700 ± 395 (25)
1650 ± 474 (25)
2125 ± 469 (68)
2535 ± 424 (86)
2650 ± 360 (160)
2600 ± 367 (263)
2900 ± 374 (584)
3000 ± 330 (1154)
3150 ± 332 (1841)
3250 ± 332 (1834)
3450 ± 345 (956)
3600 ± 374 (342) / Values for female in grams
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 622 ± 74(153)
689 ± 96(451)
777 ± 116(722)
888 ± 145(881)
1001±170(1030)
1138 ± 03(1281) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 1277 ± 218(1505)
1435 ± 261(1992)
1633 ± 275(2460)
1823 ± 306(3677)
2058 ± 341(5014)
2288 ± 364(7291)
2529 ± 433(6952)
2798 ± 498(7011)
3058 ± 518(6692)
3319 ± 527(8786)
3476 ± 498(8324)
3582 ± 493(7235)
3691 ± 518(2538) / Values for male in grams / [7]
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 587 ± 80(133)
649 ± 89(438)
738 ± 121(603)
822 ± 143(773)
934 ± 168(966)
1058 ± 203(1187) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 1199 ± 226(1254)
1376 ± 246(1606)
1548 ± 271(2044)
1730 ± 300(3007)
1960 ± 328(4186)
2194 ± 357(5936)
2420 ± 440(5082)
2675 ± 514(4690)
2946 ± 551(4372)
3184 ± 512(5755)
3342 ± 489(5978)
3461 ± 465(5529)
3546 ± 477(1906) / Values for female in grams
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 501 ± 111(82)
598 ± 114(114)
697 ± 125(156)
800 ± 147(202)
909 ± 178(234)
1026 ± 209(254)
1159 ± 241(330) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1312 ± 273(392)
1487 ± 306(467)
1682 ± 339(584)
1896 ± 369(997)
2123 ± 391(1368)
2361 ± 410(2553)
2607 ± 428(4314)
2855 ± 443(9648)
3091 ± 449(19965)
3306 ± 448(51947)
3489 ± 445(77623)
3638± 447(112737)
3745 ± 459(54139)
3800 ± 485(8791)
3793 ± 527(276) / Values for male in grams / [31]
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 472 ± 72(80)
564 ± 95(106)
656 ± 121(148)
754 ± 152(184)
860 ± 186(191)
976 ± 222(188)
1107 ± 254(287) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1256 ± 286(299)
1422 ± 319(390)
1604 ± 345(461)
1808 ± 368(795)
2029 ± 389(1055)
2266 ± 409(2018)
2512 ± 426(3391)
2754 ± 439(8203)
2981 ± 443(17308)
3181 ± 439(47516)
3350 ± 434(75068)
3486± 434(110738)
3588 ±439(52063)
3656 ± 448(7970)
3693 ± 459(277) / Values for female in grams
37
38
39
40
41 / 3336±434 (52)
3359±416 (121)
3586±460 (124)
3688±411 (171)
3877±384 (124) / Values in grams for birth weight / [9]
37
38
39
40
41 / 3051±414 (48)
3294±423 (118)
3456±434 (154)
3640±458 (167)
3697±448 (104) / Values in grams for birth weight
8
9
10
11-12 / 0.511± 0.157 (5)
1.58± 0.60 (8)
2.97± 1.44 (10)
10.23± 4.44 (3) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [19]
6--8
9
10
11
12
13
14 / 10.63±11.04 (6)
12.10±12.53 (5)
6.82±4.78 (10)
12.13±1.84 (7)
29.02±25.4 (6)
33.92±17.5 (10)
47.00±9.9 (4) / 15
16
17
18 / 70.00±31.8 (4)
195.13±120 (4)
153.20±24.1 (5)
157.40±58.5 (4) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [18]
6-7
8-9
10
12
13 / 0.046±0.045(3)
1.560±1.330(3)
3.896±2.218(4)
7.93±2.61(3)
15.25±0.43(3) / 21-22
25-26
39-41 / 262.5±79.1(4)
478.0±92.5(4)
2339.3±373.9(3) / Values in cm3, Autopsy measurements / [32]
24
26
28 / 638 ± 240(108)
845 ± 246(143)
1020±340(139) / 30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44 / 1230±340(148)
1488±335(150)
1838±530(104)
2165± 600(87)
2678±758(102)
3163±595(220)
3263±573(112)
3690± 800(42) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [33]
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27 / 416 ± 138 (44)
525 ±127 (82)
675 ±185 (119)
872 ±214 (121) / 28-29
30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41
42-43 / 1189 ± 321(116)
1453 ± 473 (79)
1716 ± 525 (86)
1935 ± 509 (68)
2505± 659 (106)
2961 ± 650 (79)
3239 ± 680 (98)
3621 ± 608 (25) / Values in grams / [34]
<16 / 67.7±35.6 (28) / 16-20
20-24 / 205.3±61.8(50)
350.7±98(25) / 24-32
>32 / 787.7±219(20)
2360±675 (5) / Values in grams / [35]
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27
28-29 / 421±274.4 (44)
552.3±340 (89)
690±388 (134)
874±435 (166)
1206±886 (164) / 30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41
42-43 / 1441±1094 (108)
1770±1100 (109)
1988±996 (92)
2590±1472 (138)
2892±1410 (104)
3302±1580 (160)
3511±1308 (29) / Values in grams / [11]
11-12
13-14 / 9.1±7.9 (6)
55.8±14.4(20) / 15-16
17-18
19-20
21-22
23-24
25-26
27-28 / 109 ± 25 (60)
176 ± 39 (81)
268 ± 57 (79)
393 ± 79 (113)
560 ± 105 (109)
774 ± 135 (58)
1038 ± 169 (24) / 29-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-42 / 1350 ± 206 (11)
1703 ± 248 (12)
2080 ± 293 (10)
2461 ± 342 (10)
2813 ± 395 (18)
3095 ± 452 (35)
3255 ± 513 (14) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [10]
12
13
14 / 15.9 ± 12.3 (9)
37.4 ± 12.3 (6)
60.6 ± 12.3 (16) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 88.6 ± 12.3 (18)
111.8 ± 8.7 (19)
155.1 ± 19.7 (19)
206.2 ± 31.2 (36)
265.1 ± 42.9 (51)
331.8 ± 55.0 (56)
406.2 ± 67.4 (59)
488.3 ± 80.2 (59)
578.2 ± 93.3 (31)
675.9 ± 106.7 (6)
781.4 ± 120.5 (9)
894.6 ± 134.6 (7)
1015.5 ± 149.0 (7)
1144.3 ± 163.8 (4) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 1280.8 ± 163.8 (5)
1425.0 ± 194.3 (5)
1577.0 ± 210.1 (3)
1736.8 ± 226.2 (3)
1904.4 ± 242.7 (14)
2079.7 ± 259.4 (9)
2262.7 ± 276.6 (8)
2453.6 ± 294.0 (7)
2652.1 ± 311.8 (20)
2858.5 ± 329.9 (19)
3072.6 ± 348.3 (19)
3294.5 ± 367.1 (17)
3524.1 ± 386.2 (9) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [14]
12
13
14 / 21±6.4 (8)
31±10 (21)
49±16 (18) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 / 75±22 (49)
108±25 (36)
149±32 (50)
195±44 (44)
248±46 (52)
307±47 (66)
370±60 (38)
438±74 (50)
510±77 (39)
586±74 (29)
665±104 (24)
747±110 (13) / Values in grams, Autopsy measurements / [13]
12-16 / 48.1±17.8(11) / 17-20
21-24
25-28 / 160 ± 47 (33)
346 ± 71 (50)
568 ± 104 (21) / 29-32
33-36
37-40 / 887 ± 159 (12)
1251 ± 224 (13)
2408 ± 593 (12) / Values in grams / [36]
12
13
14 / 29.6±14.9 (11)
37.4±14.9 (49)
53±14.9 (62) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 76.5±18.5 (49)
108±41 (72)
147±53 (55)
194±65 (41)
249±78 (44)
312±92 (47)
382±107 (37)
461±122 (40)
547±122 (26)
641±137 (25)
743±154 (12)
853±171 (15)
971±188 (11)
1096±206 (6) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 / 1230±225 (6)
1371±244 (8)
1520±264 (8)
1677±285(5)
1842±306 (6)
2015±328 (8)
2195±350 (14)
2383±373 (7)
2580±397 (15)
2784±421 (13)
2996±446 (30)
3215±471 (17)
3443±497 (24)
3678±524 (22)
3922±551 (4) / Values in grams / [37]
30-31
32 - 33
34 - 35
36 - 37
38 - 39
40 - 41
42 - 43 / 3.36 (15)
4.10 (39)
5.37 (85)
6.39 (295)
7.18 (786)
7.73 (984)
7.91 (281) / Values in grams for male / [38]
30-31
32 - 33
34 - 35
36 - 37
38 - 39
40 - 41
42 - 43 / 3.12 (19)
4.47 (31)
4.91 (77)
6.00 (290)
6.93 (727)
7.40 (942)
7.52 (268) / Values in grams for female

GA= gestational (post-menstrual) age in weeks, 3D= 3-dimensional (3D) sonography, US= ultrasonography; VOCAL= Virtual Organ Computer-Aided Analysis; XIVOCAL= eXtended Imaging VOCAL

Table 3. Fetal body surface area.
FA (weeks) / Body weight
(gms) / BSA(cm2) / references
8
10
15
20
25
30
35
38 / 4.7
21
160
480
990
1700
2700
3500 / 30
70
290
620
990
1400
1900
2300 / [39]
Based on Meban et al [40]
31.6±0.5
33.0±0.8
33.8±0.7
36.5±1.1
37.0±0.5
38.8±0.5 / 1300±50 (5)
1850±80 (4)
2300±60 (6)
2850±50 (5)
3350±70 (6)
3750±300 (12) / 1230±70(5)
1500±80(4)
1870±60(6)
1910±90(5)
2400±20(6)
2500±1000(12) / [41]
4.6-5.4
5.95±0.30
7.45±0.75
10.35±0.51
12.04±0.21
13.0 ± 0.33 / 0.02, 0.05 (2)
1.21±0.71 (7)
10.55±5.16 (7)
34.87±6.53 (4)
53.7±4.7 (4) / 0.68, 0.93 (2)
2.59±0.73 (6)
9.08±3.80 (7)
37.70±11.63(7)
93.07±14.22(4)
131.1±11.8 (4) / [42]
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
38 / 1.05±0.12
15.9±8.1
110.4±28.7
423±109
1053±312
1952±519
2981±676
3606±706 / 8.16±0.73
60.8±24.0
231±41
565±99
1027±206
1534±271
2017±298
2279±287 / Predicted using height and weight equations and Meban equation

FA= fetal (post-conceptual) age in weeks.

Table 4. Crown-rump length, CRL (cm) for male and female fetuses
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / Reference
GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / mean±SD (n)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 / 0.59±0.25 (26)
1.07±0.32 (26)
1.70±0.38 (24)
2.49±0.45 (22)
3.47±0.52 (26)
4.66±0.58 (20)
6.07±0.65 (22) / [43]
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 / 0.68±0.18(10)
1.27±0.15(10)
1.86±0.23(14)
2.63±0.18(13)
3.65±0.23(11)
4.56±0.35(11)
5.53±0.21(3) / [44]
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 / 0.37±0.61
0.90±0.61
1.55±0.61
2.31±0.61
3.18±0.61
4.17±0.61
5.27±0.61
6.49±0.61
7.82±0.61 / [45]
Total n=183 fetuses
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 / 0.69 ±0.46
1.08 ±0.61
1.54 ±0.80
2.15 ±0.97
3.0 ±1.2
4.0 ±1.3
5.2 ±1.5
6.5 ±1.7 / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21 / 7.8 ±1.9
9.0 ±2.1
10.2 ±2.2
11.1 ±2.4
11.8 ±2.6
12.4 ±2.8
13.2 ±3.0 / [46]
9
10
11
12
13 / 2.75±0.48 (554)
3.62±0.61 (587)
4.94±0.66 (972)
6.08±0.71 (1279)
7.25±0.73 (876) / [47]
11-12
13-14 / 6.2±1.1(6)
9.0±1.2(20) / 15-16
17-18
19-20
21-22
23-24
25-26
27-28 / 11.6±1.2(60)
14.2±1.3(81)
16.6±1.3(79)
19.0±1.4(113)
21.2±1.4(109)
23.4±1.5(58)
25.4±1.5(24) / 29-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-42 / 27.4±1.6(11)
29.2±1.6(12)
31.0±1.7(10)
32.7±1.7(10)
34.2±1.8(18)
35.7±1.8(35)
37.0±1.8(14) / [10]
12
13
14 / 7.15±0.8(9)
8.5±0.87(6)
9.83±0.93(15) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 11.14±1.0(18)
12.42±1.07(19)
13.68±1.13(19)
14.92±1.2(35)
16.14±1.27(51)
17.34±1.34(55)
18.51±1.4(58)
19.66±1.47(59)
20.79±1.54(30)
21.89±1.61(6)
22.98±1.68(8)
24.04±1.75(6)
25.08±1.82(6)
26.09±1.89(4) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 27.09±1.97(5)
28.06±2.04(5)
29.01±2.11(3)
29.94±2.18(3)
30.84±2.26(14)
31.72±2.33(9)
32.58±2.4(8)
33.42±2.48(7)
34.24±2.55(20)
35.03±2.63(19)
35.8±2.71(19)
36.55±2.78(17)
37.28±2.86(9) / [14]
12
13
14 / 7.6±0.6(10)
8.7±0.8(21)
9.8±1.1(18) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 / 10.9±1.0(43)
12±1.1(37)
13.2±1.1(48)
14.3±1.2(47)
15.4±1.2(51)
16.5±1.2(65)
17.7±1.4(36)
18.8±1.6(50)
19.9±1.3(40)
21±1.4(30)
22.1±1.1(22)
23.3±1.1(13) / [13]
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 7.4±1.1(11)
8.7±1.2(49)
9.9±1.2(62)
11.1±1.2(49)
12.4±1.3(72)
13.5±1.3(55)
14.7±1.3(41)
15.9±1.3(44)
17.0±1.4(47)
18.2±1.4(37)
19.3±1.4(40)
20.4±1.5(26)
21.5±1.5(25)
22.6±1.5(12)
23.6±1.5(15)
24.7±1.6(11)
29.7±1.7(6) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 28.7±1.7(6)
27.7±1.6(8)
26.7±1.6(8)
25.7±1.6(5)
30.6±1.7(6)
31.6±1.8(8)
32.5±1.8(14)
33.4±1.8(7)
34.3±1.8(15)
35.2±1.9(13)
36.1±1.9(30)
37.0±1.9(17)
37.8±1.9(24) / [37]
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27 / 18.3±4.0(40)
20.0±4.8(80)
22.1±4.0(108)
23.7±4.4(133) / 28-29
30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41 / 25.7±6.4(120)
27.4±6.6(79)
29.1±6.8(82)
30.3±6.6(71)
33.1±7.8(96)
34.1±6.8(85)
35.5±7.6(120) / [11]

GA= gestational (post-menstrual) age in weeks.

Table 5. fetal head circumference HC (cm)
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / Reference
GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / mean±SD (n)
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 / 1.15±0.85
2.34±0.85
3.52±0.85
4.71±0.85
5.89±0.85
7.08±0.85
8.26±0.85
9.45±0.85 / [45]
(total n= 162 fetuses)
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 20.6±1.2(7)
21.4±1.2(60)
22.2±1.3(225)
23.2±1.3(309)
24.2±1.4(467)
25.1±1.5(512)
26.0±1.7(637) / [4]
Male fetuses
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 19.4±1.3(4)
20.9±1.5(42)
21.8±1.1(158)
22.6±1.4(276)
23.6±1.5(394)
24.4±1.5(456)
25.4±1.6(518) / [4]
Female fetuses
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 11.7±0.4(10)
12.9±0.9(17)
14.3±0.7(17)
15.6±0.7(81)
16.9±0.9(65)
18.0±0.7(486)
19.0±0.9(260)
20.1±0.9(185)
21.5±1.0(51)
22.8±1.0(87)
24.1±0.9(42)
24.8±0.8(49)
26.0±1.3(41)
27.0±1.1(89) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 28.2±1.2(65)
29.0±1.1(61)
29.6±1.2(81)
30.3±1.2(134)
30.9±1.2(109)
31.5±1.2(190)
32.1±1.4(119)
32.7±1.2(146)
33.1±1.3(102)
33.5±1.5(69)
33.6±1.3(33) / [28]
Male fetuses
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 11.5±0.4(10)
12.8±0.6(13)
14.0±0.5(24)
15.3±0.7(73)
16.8±0.8(77)
17.7±0.8(454)
18.7±0.8(222)
19.9±0.8(178)
20.9±0.9(53)
22.2±1.0(79)
23.2±0.8(35)
24.4±1.1(32)
25.5±1.0(39)
26.3±1.1(85) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 27.6±1.2(40)
28.3±1.4(61)
29.1±1.3(70)
30.0±1.0(149)
30.6±1.2(110)
31.2±1.1(198)
31.5±1.4(111)
32.2±1.3(122)
32.5±1.4(108)
32.7±1.3(81)
33.1±1.1(42) / [28]
Female fetuses
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 21.3±1.0(153)
22.2±1.1(451)
23.1±1.1(722)
24.1±1.3(881)
25.2±1.3(1030)
26.1±1.4(1281) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 27.0±1.4(1505)
27.9±1.5(1992)
28.9±1.5(2460)
29.8±1.5(3677)
30.7±1.6(5014)
31.6±1.6(7291)
32.4±1.6(6952)
33.2±1.7(7011)
33.8±1.7(6692)
34.4±1.7(8786)
34.6±1.6(8324)
34.8±1.5(7235) / [7]
Male fetuses
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 20.8±1.2(133)
21.7±1.1(438)
22.7±1.2(603)
23.5±1.2(773)
24.5±1.3(966)
25.5±1.5(1187) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 26.5±1.5(1254)
27.5±1.5(1606)
28.4±1.5(2044)
29.3±1.5(3007)
30.2±1.5(4186)
31.1±1.6(5936)
31.9±1.6(5082)
32.6±1.7(4690)
33.3±1.7(4372)
33.8±1.6(5755)
34.0±1.5(5978)
34.2±1.5(5529) / [7]
Female fetuses
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 21.0±1.4(8)
22.1±1.4(12)
23.1±1.5(15)
24.2±1.5(24)
25.3±1.5(24)
26.3±1.5(26) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 27.4±1.5(25)
28.4±1.5(44)
29.4±1.5(69)
30.4±1.5(101)
31.3±1.5(172)
32.2±1.5(352)
33.0±1.4(663)
33.7±1.4(1402)
34.4±1.4(3602)
34.9±1.3(10836)
35.2±1.3(22880)
35.5±1.3(26187) / [8]
Male fetuses
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 20.5±1.4(5)
21.6±1.4(7)
22.7±1.4(18)
23.8±1.5(14)
24.9±1.5(19)
25.9±1.5(29) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 27.0±1.5(19)
28.0±1.5(27)
29.0±1.5(40)
29.9±1.5(73)
30.8±1.5(116)
31.7±1.4(277)
32.5±1.4(499)
33.2±1.4(1096)
33.9±1.4(2989)
34.3±1.3(9674)
34.6±1.3(21984)
34.9±1.2(26347) / [8]
Female fetuses
37
38
39
40 / 34.5±1.1(52)
34.7±1.1(121)
35.2±1.1(124)
35.4±1.0(171) / [9]
Male fetuses
37
38
39
40
41 / 33.8±2.3(48)
34.0±1.1(118)
34.3±1.1(154)
34.7±1.1(167)
35.0±1.1(104) / [9]
Female fetuses
28 / 25.0±4.9(19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 29.0±2.4(13)
29.0±2.3(23)
30.0±3.0(26)
31.0±2.4(40)
31.0±1.8(77)
33.0±1.2(105)
33.0±1.4(169)
33.0±1.8(277)
33.5±1.5(502)
34.0±1.2(1187)
34.0±1.8(1871)
35.0±1.2(1964)
35.0±1.2(1044) / [6]
Male fetuses
28 / 26.5±2.7(19) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 27.5±1.5(19)
29.0±2.2(20)
29.8±3.2(25)
30.8±2.9(25)
31.8±2.4(68)
33.0±1.8(86)
33.0±1.8(160)
33.0±1.5(263)
34.0±1.2(584)
34.0±1.2(1154)
34.0±1.5(1841)
34.0±1.8(1834)
35.0±1.2(956) / [6]
Female fetuses
12
13
14 / 6.3±0.86(6)
7.8±0.92(6)
9.27±0.97(14) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 10.7±1.03(18)
12.09±1.08(19)
13.43±1.14(18)
14.74±1.19(34)
16±1.24(49)
17.23±1.29(52)
18.42±1.34(57)
19.56±1.39(58)
20.66±1.43(29)
21.73±1.48(6)
22.75±1.53(8)
23.74±1.57(7)
24.68±1.61(7)
25.58±1.66(4) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 26.44±1.7(5)
27.26±1.74(5)
28.05±1.78(3)
28.79±1.82(3)
29.49±1.85(13)
30.15±1.89(9)
30.77±1.93(8)
31.35±1.96(7)
31.89±2.0(19)
32.39±2.03(19)
32.84±2.06(18)
33.26±2.09(17) / [14]
Male & female fetuses
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27
28-29 / 18.6±3.8(38)
20.3±4.0(72)
22.0±3.8(95)
23.9±3.8(120)
26.4±4.8(100) / 30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41 / 28.4±6.0(64)
29.5±6.2(72)
31.3±8.0(58)
33.2±9.4(88)
33.8±4.6(76)
35.1±6.0(120) / [11]
Male & female fetuses
24-26
27-28 / 23.2±3.72(13)
25.8±2.46(20) / 29-30
31-32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 26.7±1.62(12)
29.2±3.1(11)
31.3±2.8(11)
30.8±2.72(18)
32.3±2.74(13)
32.8±2.22(20)
33.6±2.58(20)
34.7±2.74(20)
34.7±1.96(25)
34.7±2.28(47) / [12]
Male & female fetuses
13
14 / 8.61±0.78(230)
9.99±0.80(258) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 11.35±0.82(272)
12.68±0.85(529)
13.99±0.87(477)
15.27±0.89(258)
16.52±0.91(187)
17.75±0.94(167)
18.94±0.96(161)
20.10±0.98(131)
21.22±1.00(111)
22.31±1.03(86)
23.36±1.05(102)
24.37±1.07(79)
25.34±1.09(102)
26.27±1.12(116) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 27.16±1.14(119)
28.00±1.16(116)
28.79±1.18(127)
29.53±1.21(127)
30.22±1.23(153)
30.87±1.25(156)
31.45±1.27(166)
31.99±1.30(166)
32.46±1.32(202)
32.88±1.34(155)
33.24±1.36(159)
33.54±1.39(195) / [48]
Male & female fetuses

GA= gestational (post-menstrual) age in weeks.

Table 6. fetal abdominal circumference, AC (cm)
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / Reference
GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / Mean ± SD (n) / GA / mean±SD (n)
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 / 2.13±0.76
2.85±0.76
3.66±0.76
4.57±0.76
5.58±0.76
6.68±0.76
7.88±0.76 / [45]
(total n= 160)
24-26
27-28 / 16.2±3.16(13)
18.0±2.32(20) / 29-30
31-32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 19.0±1.94(12)
20.8±3.26(11)
22.5±2.60(11)
23.0±3.14(18)
24.3±3.70(13)
24.4±2.44(20)
26.0±4.32(20)
27.6±3.58(20)
28.1±3.86(25)
28.8±3.82(47)
29.1±4.16(27) / [12]
12
13
14 / 5.1±0.67(8)
6.08±0.77(6)
7.06±0.87(14) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 8.03±1.0(18)
9.0±1.1(18)
9.94±1.2(17)
10.89±1.3(34)
11.83±1.4(49)
12.7±1.5(54)
13.7±1.5(58)
14.6±1.6(56)
15.5±1.7(29)
16.4±1.8(6)
17.3±1.9(8)
18.21±2.0(6)
19.1±2.1(6)
20.0±2.2(3) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 / 20.84±2.3(5)
21.7±2.4(5)
22.57±2.5(3)
23.42±2.6(3)
24.3±2.6(14)
25.1±2.74(9)
25.9±2.83(8)
26.8±2.9(7)
27.6±3.0(20)
28.4±3.1(19)
29.2±3.2(17)
30.0±3.3(16)
30.8±3.35(8) / [14]
13
14 / 6.82±0.74(254)
7.98±0.78(281) / 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 9.13±0.83(282)
10.27±0.88(545)
11.40±0.93(501)
12.53±0.97(275)
13.64±1.02(205)
14.75±1.07(175)
15.85±1.12(169)
16.93±1.16(136)
18.00±1.21(113)
19.06±1.26(92)
20.11±1.31(106)
21.15±1.35(86)
22.17±1.40(104)
23.18±1.45(120) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40 / 24.17±1.50(123)
25.15±1.54(115)
26.11±1.59(132)
27.06±1.64(133)
27.99±1.69(158)
28.90±1.73(166)
29.80±1.78(178)
30.68±1.83(177)
31.54±1.88(211)
32.38±1.92(167)
33.20±1.97(174)
34.00±2.02(222) / [49]
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 9.8±0.4(9)
10.9±0.7(17)
12.2±0.5(18)
13.2±0.7(84)
14.7±0.9(65)
15.6±0.9(482)
16.5±1.0(258)
17.5±1.0(184)
18.9±1.0(51)
20.0±1.3(87)
21.3±1.0(42)
21.9±1.2(49)
23.4±1.6(40)
24.3±1.4(89) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 25.5±1.7(65)
26.6±1.3(61)
27.3±1.7(81)
28.3±1.6(134)
29.4±1.9(109)
30.3±1.9(190)
31.2±2.3(119)
32.3±2.4(146)
32.8±2.5(102)
33.6±2.5(69)
34.1±2.1(53) / [28]
Male fetuses
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 9.7±0.6(9)
11.0±0.6(12)
11.9±0.6(24)
13.0±0.9(73)
14.4±0.9(77)
15.3±0.9(451)
16.3±0.9(221)
17.4±1.0(176)
18.3±1.1(53)
19.4±1.3(78)
20.6±1.0(35)
21.8±1.8(32)
22.8±1.7(39)
23.8±1.7(85) / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39 / 24.8±1.7(40)
25.9±1.7(61)
27.2±1.7(70)
28.1±1.4(149)
29.1±1.9(110)
30.0±1.8(197)
30.8±2.2(111)
31.8±2.2(122)
32.4±2.1(108)
33.2±2.4(81)
34.5±2.1(48) / [28]
Female fetuses

GA= gestational (post-menstrual) age in weeks.

Table 7. Reported equations for fetal composition
Component / equation / notes
water / Water(g) = 91.92 - 0.0059 · WT / [50]Indian foetuses between 20 to 40 GW
Water(g)=1.56 · WT0.911 / [51]
Water (g) = =1.079 ·WT0.9615 / [52]
Water (%) = 90.3094 - 8.1011 · WT + 0.7936·WT2 / [53]
WT in kg
Fat / Fat (g) = 0.0049 · WT - 2.25 / [50] Indian foetuses between 20 to 40 GW
Fat (g)=0.000001085 · WT2.45 / [51]
Fat (g/kg WT)=EXP(-2.7462 + 1.3870 · WT) / [53]
Fat (g) = 0.241(volume of fat sheath of trunk) - 213.13 / [54]
Fetus at term
Protein / Protein (g) = 7.33 + 0.00078 · WT (g) / [50] Indian foetuses between 20 to 40 GW

WT=body weight in grams

1

Khaled Abduljalil, Trevor N. Johnson, and Amin Rostami-Hodjegan. Fetal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Biometry and Gross Composition.Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

(Simcyp Limited, A Certara Company)

Table 8. Fetal body composition
Gestational age (weeks) / Fetal body weight
(gms) / Fetal volume
(cm3) / Fat Mass (g)
<% WT / Fat-free Mass (g)
<% WT / Total body Water (g)
<% WT / Reference
24 / NA / 612±95 (12) / ~6 ,<0.98%>* (12) / 606, (12)*
<99%> / NA / [55] Assessed by magnetic resonance values for fat and fat-free mass are in cm3
34 / 2430±270 (11) / 2365±275 (11) / 541±348 (11)
<22.5±13.8%> / 1823±316 (11)
<77.5%> / NA
Pre-term AGA / 2343±580 (15) / NA / 304±88.69 (15) <12.9±1.67%> / 2039 (15)
<87.03%)* / NA / [56]
Body fat was calculated from anthropometric measurements
Term LGA / 4246±449 (14) / 774±173 (14)
<18.2±3.7%> / 3472 <81.8%> / NA
Term SGA / 2209±170 (8) / NA / 269±63 (8)
12.1±2.04 %> / 1940 <87.8%> / NA
Term AGA / 3301±170 (32) / NA / 450±78.63 (32) <13.6±2.26%> / 2851 (32)
<86.37%>* / NA
32.8 / 1758 ± 548 (20) / NA / 197 ± 104 (20)
<10.1 ± 2.5% / 1614 ± 455 (20)
<88.2 ± 2.6% / NA / [57]
Assessed by X-ray absorptiometry method
34.4 / 2119 ± 457 (76) / NA / 235 ± 83 (76)
<10.4 ± 2.1% / 1939 ± 387 (76)
<87.9 ± 2.2% / NA
36.0 / 2312 ± 459 (20) / NA / 266 ± 82 (20)
<10.9 ± 1.8%> / 2081 ± 380 (20)
<87.3 ± 1.9% / NA
Term, boy
Term, girl / 3545
3325 / NA
NA / 486, <13.7%>
495, <14.9%> / 3059, <86.3%>
2830, <85.1%> / (2129, <60%>)*
(1941, <58%>)* / [58] Assessed by reference children
39.1±1.6 (AGA) / 3227±449 (159) / NA / 653±304 (159)
<19.2± 6.8% / 2646±364 (159)
<82.0> / NA / [59]
Assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan method
38.6±2 (SGA) / 2480±464 (89) / NA / 434±206 (89)
<15.6± 5.9% / 2222±269 (89)
<89.6> / NA
Term (GDM) / 3401±319 (16) / NA / 432±146* (16)
<12.7±4.3% / 2969*
<87.3%>* / NA / [54]
Test and validation groups
electrical conductivity method
Term (GDM) / 3628±391 (20) / NA / 483± 116* (20)
<13.3±3.2% / 3146*
<86.7%>* / NA
12
16
20
24
26
28
31
32
33
35
36
38
40 / 20
100
300
750
1000
1350
1500
2000
2000
2500
2700
3000
3500 / 0.1 <0.5%>
1.6 <0.6%>
2.7 <0.9%>
13 <1.7%>
10 <1.0%>
47 <3.5%>
35 <2.3%>
120 <6.0%>
100 <5.0%>
185 <7.4%>
250 <9.3%>
360 <12.0%>
525 <15.0%> / 20* <99.5%>
99* <99.4%>
297* <99.1%>
737* <98.3%>
990* <99%>
1303* <96.5%>
1465* <97.7%>
1880* <94%>
1900* <95%>
2315* <92.6%>
2450* <90.7%>
2640* <88%>
2975* <85%> / NA
NA
NA
NA
860 <86%>
NA
1270 <84.7%>
NA
1620 <81%>
1940 <77.6%>
NA
2180 <72.7%>
NA / [60-62]
Chemical analyses from the dead fetuses
8 Fetal age
10 Fetal age
15 Fetal age
20 Fetal age
25 Fetal age
30 Fetal age
35 Fetal age
38 Fetal age / 4.7
21
160
480
990
1700
2700
3500 / NA
NA
0.16
0.48
23.76
107.1
251.1
392 / 4.7*
21*
160*
480*
966*
1593*
2449*
3108* / 4.47
19
143
425
848
1372
2063
2590 / [39]
Values for Reference man (ICRP publication)
9 Fetal age / 1.3±0.51 (2) / NA / NA / NA / 1.13±0.6 (2)*
<86.9±13.2%>* / [63]
chemical analyses
11 Fetal age / 11±4.74 (8) / NA / NA / NA / 10.2±4.4(8)*
<92.8±0.9%>*
13 / 38.3±28.2 (16) / NA / 0.25±0.05(3)
<0.5±0.1%> / 38.1±12.4(3)*
<99.5±0.1%>* / 34.6±25.0(16)*
<90.3±2.0%>*
15 / 77.8±17.76 (7) / NA / 0.8 (1) <0.7%> / 77 (1)*
<99.3%>* / 70.0±15.4 (7) *
<90.1±1.0%>*
17 / 140.3±40.3(10) / NA / 0.61±0.21(3) <0.5±0.0%> / 139.7±32.9(3) *
<99.5±0.0%>* / 124.8±37.3(10) *
<89.2±2.5%>*
19 / 273.5±54.0(13) / NA / 1.45±0.53(7) <0.6±0.2%> / 272.1±38.0(7) *
<99.4±0.2%>* / 241.8±51.1(13) *<88.4±1.6%>*
19.43 / 273.5±54.0(13) / NA / 1.45±0.53(5)<0.7±0.0%> / 272.1±38.0(5) *<99.3±0.0%>* / 241.8±51.1(13) *
<88.2±0.9%>*
21.57 / 395.6±82.8(3) / NA / 2.79±0.57(3)<1.1±0.1%> / 392.8±82.3(3) *<98.9±0.1%>* / 348.7±71.4(3) *
<84.5±3.8%>*
23.71 / 478±130.2(4) / NA / 6.59±0.69(3)<1.6±0.5%> / 471.4±9.9(3) *<98.4±0.5%>* / 406.6±120.2(4) *
<85.2±1.3%>*
25.86 / 641.7±112.2(3) / NA / 11.34±5.55(2)<3.0±1.1%> / 630.4±136.6(2) *<97.0±1.1%>* / 545.7±87.1(3) *
<83.5±1.9%>*
28 / 964.6±116.8(9) / NA / 28.19±10.68(6)<2.7±0.7%> / 936.4±107.7(6) *<97.3±0.7%>* / 803.8±104.5(8) *
<82.8±0.3%>*
30.14 / 1031±152(3) / NA / 28.7±11.7 (3)<4.1±1.0%> / 1002.4±140.0(3) *<95.9±1.0%>* / 853.3±122.4(3)*<80.1±2.2%>*
32.29 / 1480±221 (5) / NA / 63.6±15.6(2)<5.9±2.5%> / 1416.1±8.6(2) *<94.1±2.5%>* / 1184±216(4) *
<76.3±4.1%>*
35.14 / 1624±133(3) / NA / 97.5±48.7(3)<11.0±2.6%> / 1526.2±96.7(3) *<89.0±2.6%>* / 1239±117(3) *
<73.3±1.8%>*
38.71 / 2322±394(3) / NA / 262.0±100.3(3)<10.9±3.2%> / 2060.3±298.4(3)*<89.1±3.2%>* / 1698±250(3)*<72.6±2.1%>*
38 / 3483±385(13) / 599±161(13)*
<17±4%> / 2884±334(13)*
<83±4%> / [64]magnetic resonance imaging
10
20
30
40 / 5
300
1500
3400 / 0.01
2
80
440 / 4.99*
298*
1420*
2960* / 4
264
1185
2414 / [53] Derived based on data from Kelly’s and Widdowson’s studies [62, 63]
2.3Fetal age
6.6
10.9
15.1
19.4
23.7
28.0
32.3
40.8 / NA / NA / NA / NA / 39.8%
92.7%
91%
89.2%
87.5%
85.8%
83.9%
81.9%
75.5% / [65]
Average values from old studies used chemical analyses

Data is given as Mean± SD (n).

*=calculated based on original data; NA= not reported in the original study;AGA= appropriate-for-gestational age; SGA =small-for-gestational age, LGA=large-for-gestational age; GDM = gestational diabetes mellitus

1

Khaled Abduljalil, Trevor N. Johnson, and Amin Rostami-Hodjegan. Fetal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Biometry and Gross Composition.Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

(Simcyp Limited, A Certara Company)

Table 9. Fetal Intracellular and extracellular water during development.
Fetal age (weeks) / Total water
(%WT) / ECW
(%WT) / ICW
(%WT) / Reference
3.7
5.1
6.6
8.0
9.4
11 / 93.5
94.0
92.2
91.8
91.2
90.5 / ~ 65
~ 65
~ 65
~ 65
~ 65
~ 65 / NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA / [66]
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
38 / 88.2
87.1
86.1
85.4
83.7
83.0
81.9
80.5
78.0
75.5 / 62.0
61.5
60.3
58.9
56.8
54.9
52.5
49.3
47.8
40 / 25.1
25.3
25.4
25.8
26.5
27.0
27.9
29.1
30.2
35 / [67]
18
22
30
38 / 87.5
85.8
81.9
75.5 / 62.5
58.8
52.9
43.5 / 25
27
29
32 / [68-70]
38 / 69 / 42.5 / 26.5 / [58]
38 / 71 / 41.2 / 29.8 / [71]
25 (n=35)
26 (n=7) / 84.4
90.6 / 50.5
51.1 / 35.5
38.6 / [72]
Preterm infants
31 (n=14) / 86.6 / 50.4 / 36.2 / [73]
Preterm infants
Table 10. Fetal total protein weight (g).
1st trimester / 2nd trimester / 3rd trimester / Reference
FA / Mean ± SD (n) / FA / Mean ± SD (n) / FA / mean±SD (n)
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 / 60.72
69.3
80.96
94.94
111.36
130.482
149.48 / 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38 / 169.95
193.98
218.16
245.3
274.4
306.66
341.04
372.88
396.27
414 / [74]
17
19
22
23
24
26 / 23
23
39
57
71
79 / 31
32
33
34
35
37
38
39 / 156
229
251
327
306
446
344
364 / [61, 75]
17
20
21
22
23
24
26 / 28.5
36.8
43.9
60.1
53.4
62.5
87.2 / 28
29
30
31
32
35
36
37
38
39 / 124
166
184
199
318
379
306
344
394
372 / [76]
9 / 1.27 / 15
16
17
23
23
26 / 13.9
14.2
31.6
53.6
62.7
82.7 / 29
31
31
35 / 162
195
223
185 / [77]

FA : fetal age in weeks.

1

Khaled Abduljalil, Trevor N. Johnson, and Amin Rostami-Hodjegan. Fetal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Biometry and Gross Composition.Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

(Simcyp Limited, A Certara Company)

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