Study Guide – Test on States of Matter – Thursday, October 6, 2016
Part One: Properties of the States of Matter
NB #24, #31
- What is matter?
- How is mass different from volume?
- What are the 4 states of matter?
- Why is weight not the same thing as mass?
- What are characteristics of solids?
- What are characteristics of liquids?
- What are characteristics of gases?
- What are characteristics of plasma?
- List the states of matter in order of low energy to high energy.
- How is temperature related to the motion of the particles?
- How can we prove that liquids have a strong attraction?
- What states of matter expand when heated?
- What causes the expansion of matter?
Part Two: Kinetic Molecular Theory and Energy
Item #12 in NB
- What 4 things does the Kinetic Molecular Theory State?
Item #14 & 16 in NB
- For each energy listed below, give a definition and example of each
Types of Energy / Definition / Example
- What mnemonic device will help us remembering the energies listed above?
- What is potential energy?
- What is kinetic energy?
- What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?
Item #15 in NB
- What is an energy transformation?
- Give two examples of an energy transformation.
- What is an energy transfer?
- Give two examples of an energy transfer.
- For each example below, complete the chart
Action / PE or KE / Primary Type of Energy
Moving Skateboard / KE / Mechanical
Battery / PE / Chemical
Electric current in a wire
Splitting of atom
- For each example below, identify if it is an energy transfer or transformation. Identify how the energy changed.
Action / Transfer or Transformation / How energy changed
Gasoline burning to make car move / Transformation / Chemical to Mechanical
Bowling Ball strikes pins and makes them fall down / Transfer / Mechanical to Mechanical
Heater warming room
Nuclear Energy produces electricity
Boiling water on a stove
Part 3: Gas Laws (NB #22, #29)
- What three measurements are dependent on one another in gases?
- What can I measure to get the volume of gases?
- What is pressure?
- What does Charles’ Law state?
- Use this law to explain why a balloon gets smaller when placed in liquid nitrogen, but grows larger when left in a hot car on a sunny day.
- Why is Charles’ Law directly proportional?
- What does Boyles’ Law state?
- Use this law to explain why a marshmallow expands its volume when placed in a vacuum container with no air.
- What does it mean that Boyle’s Law is inversely proportional?
- Pressure is affected by temperature. Why does temperature increase the pressure of a gas in a closed up container?
Part Four: Changes of State
NB #24, #25, #32, #33
- What does it mean that states of matter change as heat is added or release?
- What is an endothermic change?
- What is an exothermic change?
- Complete the chart below:
Type of Change in State / How it changes / Added or Released Energy? / Endothermic or Exothermic / Example
Freezing / Liquid to Solid / Released / Exothermic / Lake freezes in winter
- How does pressure affect the boiling point of water?
- What two types of vaporization are there?
- Which type of vaporization happens throughout the liquid?
- Which type of vaporization happens only at the surface of the liquid?
- What is the boiling point of water in Celsius? Freezing point?
Part Five: Water Cycle
NB #34 and #35
- What is the water cycle?
- What type of energy moves water from one place to another?
- Why is water so important to our ecosystem?
- When water precipitates, what change of state has occurred?
- What state of mater is water mostly in during the water cycle?
- At what point does water turn into a gas?
- What two processes in the water cycle cause this to happen?
- At what location is water in the solid state in the water cycle?
- What change of state causes this to happen?
- How does water sublimate in the water cycle?
- When does water undergo deposition to change from a gas to a solid? Why does this only happen in very cold climates?
- You learned about 3 ways to extend water resources in California: drip irrigation, recycling waste water, and desalination. Which one do you believe would be the best solution?Why?