Social Science 1

Answer Key


/page 5/

The Earth's surface

Activity 1


1 Europe

2 Africa

3 Antarctic

4 Asia

5 Oceania

6 America


a Indian

b Atlantic

c Pacific

d Arctic

e Antarctic

Activity 2

1 the Equator

2 tropic of Cancer

3 tropic of Capricorn

4 the Greenwich meridian

5 Arctic polar circle

6 Antarctic polar circle

7 a parallel

8 a meridian

Activity 3

London : Latitude: 51ºN; Longitude: 0ºW

New York: Latitude: 41ºN; Longitude: 74ºW

Cairo: Latitude: 30ºN; Longitude: 31ºE

Lima: Latitude: 12ºS; Longitude: 77ºW

2 1 Oslo

2 Nairobi

3 New Delhi


3 Students’ own answers.

/page 7/


Activity 1

1 Suggested answers:

the Volga, the Danube, the Rhine, the Thames, Seine, Loire, Tago

2 Kilimanjaro (5,895 metres)

3 Suggested answers:

The Appalachians, The Andes, The Rockies

4 Euphrates – Syria/Iraq, Tigris – Iraq, Indus – Pakistan, Ganges – India, Mekong – Cambodia/Vietnam, Obi - Russia

5 Suggested answers:

Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey, Libya, Egypt, etc.

Activity 2

2 b, 3 j, 4 h, 5 m, 6 e, 7 n, 8 d, 9 q, 10 f, 11 k, 12 g, 13 o, 14 a, 15 i, 16 l, 17 p

Activity 3

1 sea

2 valley

3 hill

4 gorge

5 pass

6 summit

7 plain

8 plateau

9 mountain

/page 9/


Activity 1

1 Suggested answers:

Spain, France, Portugal, Italy,The United Kingdom, Holland, Belgium

2 Suggested answers:

Rocky Mountains (or The Rockies), The Andes,The Himalayas

Activity 2

1 Suggested answer:

Both climates have warm temperatures all year round. The Equatorial climate is more rainy than the Tropical one, which has a dry season and a rainy season. Vegetation in Equatorial climate is denser than in the Tropical climate.

2 Students’ own answer.

Activity 3

1 Students’ own answer.

2 a 14ºC

b June and July

c 17ºC

d Suggested answer:

It may be a Mediterranean climate because precipitation is abundant in autumn, summers are warm and winters are not very cold (or mild).

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Workshop: a world tour according to Jules Verne

1 Paris

2 Suggested answers:

the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, the Rhone

3 The Pyrenees

4 The Alps

5 Mont Blanc (4,808 metres)

6 the Mediterranean, the Oceanic, the Continental and the Mountain climatic zone

7 the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea (in the Indian Ocean)

8 the Suez Canal

9 New Delhi

10 It's a tropical climate. It's warm all year. It has two seasons: the dry season and the rainy season.

11 22º18'N

12 Tokyo

13 139º39E

14 the Pacific Ocean

15 USA

16 Canada and Mexico

17 England

18 The Thames

19 the English Channel

20 Suggested answer:

Since they travelled east, they crossed the International Date Line (IDL), an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth opposite the Prime Meridian, which offsets the date as one travels east or west across it. Crossing the IDL traveling east results in a day or 24 hours being subtracted, and crossing west results in a day being added. That's why they gained a full day on their journey around the world and won the bet!


/page 13/

Prehistory. The Palaeolithic Era

Activity 1

Of stone: a borer (or awl), a spearhead, a scraper, a biface

Of animal horns: a reindeer horn harpoon

Of bone: a bone needle, a spear thower

Activity 2

For hunting: a spearhead, a spear thrower, a biface

For fishing: a reindeer horn harpoon

For making clothes: a bone needle, a scraper, a borer (or awl), a biface

Activity 3

1 a horse

2 red, ochre and black

3 the Palaeolithic Era

4 cave paintings

5 Because they were painted on the walls of the caves people lived in.

6 It's in the Lascaux caves in France.

Activity 4

Suggested answers:

1. Creswell Crags was the first Upper Palaeolithic cave art to be discovered in Britain.

2. Creswell Crags was among the most northerly places on earth to have been visited by our ancient ancestors.

3. As a result of its unique features, Creswell Crags has been designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).

4. It contains Britain’s only known Ice Age art: There’s also various other facts about Stone Age people.

/page 15/

Prehistory. The Neolithic Era. The Metal Ages

Activity 1

1 around 8,000 BC

2 They were sedentary.

3 agriculture, raise animals and handicrafts – made pots and wove clothes from wool

Activity 2

For agriculture: a sickle, a stone axe

For handicrafts: a carding comb, a millstone, a spindle

Activity 3

1 b, 2 b, 3 b, 4 a

Activity 4

1 It's located in the county of Wiltshire, in the south west of England.

2 It's circular.

3 It was built in the Neolithic and Bronze Age.

4 It served as a burial ground from its earliest beginnings.

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Ancient Egypt. Geography and civilisation

Activity 1

See map on page 16 to check your answers.

Activity 2

1 between February and May – in February as they had to harvest the crop in May

2 because it was very fertile

3 fishing and hunting

4 Suggested answer:

If the flood of the river was not controlled, peasants may have two main problems. On the one hand, if the flood was too large, it would wash over mud dikes protecting the villages. On the other hand, if there was a small flood or no flood at all, it would mean famine.

Activity 3

Suggested answers:

2 The vizier was the highest official to serve the king or pharaoh. He supervised running the country, and also the security of the Pharaoh and the palace.

3 The scribes were the ones who wrote books or documents by hand. They belonged socially to a middle class elite and were employed as administrators.

4 The craftsmen worked on the great public projects (temples and tombs). They were under state control and were paid directly from the state treasury.

5 The army maintained order and defended the country from invasions. It conquered new territory and provided support for the Pharaoh.

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Ancient Egypt. Culture and religion

Activity 1

1 around 3,200 BC

2 They were used to record land, harvests, payment of taxes and building materials.

3 Jean-François Champollion deciphered hieroglyphics in 1822.

4 It is a stone tablet on which the same text is written in three different types of writing: hieroglyphic, Demotic and Greek. It is currently in the BritishMuseum (London).

Activity 2

1 Osiris is the god of the dead.

2 Ra is the sun god.

3 Isis is the goddess of magic.

4 Horus is the god of sky and of war.

5 Thoth is the god of writing and wisdom.

6 Anubis is the god of mummification.

Activity 3

1 Cheops, Kephren and Mykerinos

2 theft

Activity 4

1 Tutankhamun

2 the cobra, the striped headcloth, the earring, the false beard

3 Suggested answers:

lamps, candlesticks, jars, jewellry, vases, furniture and other objects for the afterlife

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Ancient Greece. Geography and history

Activity 1

1 Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Ionian Sea

2 It was a city-state with its own laws, political organisation, money and army.

3 Athens, Thebes, Sparta, Corinth, Troy, Argops, (see map on page 20 for others)

4 wheat, vegetables, vines and olives

5 their culture and language

Activity 2

1 Because the agrarian production was insufficient for the whole population, there were social struggles and they also had a great commercial spirit.

2 The city-state was independent from the metropolis but maintained commercial and cultural ties with it.

3 craft products, oil, wine, wheat, metals and other raw materials

4 the Phoenicians and the Etruscans

Activity 3

1 They were a small strip of land in the Levant bordered by Southern Syria to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Northern Palestine to the south, and the Lebanon mountains to the east. The Phoenicians also set up colonies in foreign lands, including Greece and the islands of the Aegean as their trade spread to the West.

Two Phoenician colonies were Gadir and Carthage.

2 They were supposed to be some way off the northwestern coast of Spain.

3 Cornwall; Abercrave area in South Wales

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Ancient Greece. The supremacy of Athens

Activity 1

1 a, 2 b

Activity 2

1 citizens, metics and slaves

2 Because of the economic growth of the poleis and the increase in the number of traders and craftsmen.

3 Only the 'citizens', adult men born in Athens from Athenian parents could participate in politics; foreigners, women and slaves were excluded from this social category.

4 It was an assembly of 500 members, which managed the daily affairs of the polis.

Activity 3

Students’ own answers.

1. Pericles in Greek means, “surrounded by glory”.

2. He turned the Delian League into the Athenian Empire.

3. 461-429 BC is known as “The Age of Pericles”, when he led Athens.

4. He promoted arts and literature; Athens being the cultural centre of Ancient Greece.

5. He was responsible for most of the famous buildings including the Parthenon and the Acropolis.

6. His mother dreamt she was going to give birth to a lion and Pericles was ridiculed for having a large head, like a lion.

Activity 4

Suggested answers:

1 everybody (but with some restrictions: e.g., age, nationality,)

2 the Parliament

3 Because representatives are most commonly chosen by the citizens in elections.

/page 25/

Ancient Greece. Mythology and heritage

Activity 1

1 Suggested answer:

Theseus promised to his father, Aegeus, that he would put up a white sail on his journey back home if he was successful and would have the crew put up black sails if he was killed. Theseus killed the Minotaur with the sword of Aegeus but he forgot to put up the white sail, so when his father saw the ship he thought Theseus was dead and killed himself.

2 Suggested answers:

1. Herakles was born to a mortal woman and the god Zeus, who gave him the gift of great strength.

2. Hera, Zeus' wife was jealous and plotted revenge for his birth by making him have a dreadful dream where Herakles killed his family.

3. Herakles was devastated so he went to the Oracle to ask the gods what he had to do.

4. He went as a slave to serve King Eurystheus who set him twelve labours which would free him from the burden of his family's death.

5. Herakles completed all of the tasks so he was released and lived a peaceful life until he died of old age and he was taken by Zeus to live as an immortal on MountOlympus.

Activity 2

1the Greek doctor Hippocratus

2Thales and Pythagoras

3Tragedies showed human conflicts and passions leading the main characters to a fatal end. However, in the comedies politics and daily life situations are criticised and the end is always a happy one.

4Aeschylus,Sophocles, Euripides

5 They took place in 776 BC in Olympus.

Activity 3

1 a True

b False (Achilles kills Hector.)

c True

d False (The Iliad relates the war of Troy.)

e False (The Odyssey relates the return of Odysseus to Ithaca.)

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The Roman world. Geography and civilisation

Activity 1

1 Quirinal Hill

2 Viminal Hill

3 Capitoline Hill

4 Esquiline Hill

5 Palatine Hill

6 Caelian Hill

7 Aventine Hill

River: Tiber

Activity 2

1 patricians and plebeians

2 Because the plebeians wanted to obtain the same rights as the patricians.

3 The conflict ended in 208 BC when the plebeians achieved equal rights.

Activity 3

Assemblies: vote for the laws, elect the magistrates

Magistrates: consuls (hold political power and run the army), censors (maintain the census of the citizens), praetors (deal with justice), aediles (deal with public order and supplies), quaestors (deal with finance), plebeian councils (defend the interests of the plebeians)

Senate: run foreign politics, advise the magistrates

Activity 4

Suggested answer

1. Romulus and Remus were twin brothers who were seized by Amulius, were put into a basket and thrown into the river Tiber and finally were rescued by a she-wolf who fed the babies with her own milk and cared for them.

2. They grew up and discovered who they really were and decided to kill Amulius and put their grandfather back on the throne.

3. After doing this they decided to build a city of their own but could not agree where to build it and so each began to build his own city enclosed with walls.

4. One day, Remus visited Romulus and made fun of his wall and Romulus was so annoyed that he killed Remus and became the first King of Rome in 753BC.

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The Roman world. The conquests and the Empire

Activity 1

1 From 264 to 201 BC: south and east coast of Hispannia, Sicily, Sardinia, north of Italy

From 201 to 60 BC: all central Hispannia, Narbonnaisse, Dalmatia, Greece, Asia, Syria, Cyrenaica, Carthage

From 60 BC to the year 14: north of Hispannia, Gaul, Raetia, Pannonia, Macedonia, Egypt, Africa, Mauritania

From 14 to 117: Britannia, Dacia

2 It was so large because all Roman citizens between 16 and 49 years of age had to join the army; and it was efficient because it was well organised in legions, discipline was very strict and it always had many soldiers available.

Activity 2

1 the year 27 BC; Octavian

2 a political

b military

c judicial

d religious

3 order and stability; the size and prosperity of the empire

Activity 3

1 The Roman Empire was divided in the year 395. The two regions were the Eastern Empire and the Western Empire.

2 Because many Germanic tribes invaded the Empire, settled in the western part and founded independent kingdoms.

Activity 4

Students’ own answer..

/page 31/

The Roman world. Britannia

Activity 1

1 The Conquest of Britannia began in the year 43 during the reign of the Emperor Claudius.

2 Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni

3 Gnaeus Julius Agricola

4 It was quick but superficial except in the region of Londinium and the Midlands.

Activity 2

1 Aqueduct

2 Theatre

3 Temple

4 Amphitheatre

5 Triumphal arch

Activity 3

1 It was probably built between 120 and 128 AD.

2 It extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne to the shore of the Solway Firth.

3 It was 73 miles long (about 117 kilometres).

4 Antoninus Pius

5 It began about 142 AD and took about 12 years to complete.

6 It was built between Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Borrowstounness, Falkirk on the Firth of Forth.

Activity 4

Bath: Roman Baths complex, Temple of Sulis Minerva

Chester: Roman amphitheatre, Roman Walls, the Minerva Shrine, the Hypocaust


Social Science 1 – Answer Key