Introduction to Biology

·  ______is the study of life

·  Life arose more than ______years ago

·  First organisms (living things) were ______celled

·  Only______on Earth for millions of years

·  Organisms changed over time (______)

·  New ______arose from older kinds

·  Today there are ______of species

·  They ______almost every region of Earth today

Themes of Biology

·  ______structure and function

·  Stability and ______

·  ______and inheritance

·  ______

·  ______of organisms

·  ______, energy, and organization

·  ______basic unit of life

·  All organisms are made of and ______from cells

·  Some composed of only a single cell (______) which is usually ______-


·  Most organisms are composed of many cells (______)

·  Cells are ______(undergo differentiation)

·  Cells are ______

·  Cells are ______organized

·  Cells contain specialized structures (______) that carry out the cell’s life processes

·  Many ______exist

·  All cells surrounded by a ______

·  Contain a set of instructions called ______(______)

Stability and Homestasis

·  Organisms must Maintain very stable internal conditions - ______.

·  ______, etc. must be maintained

Reproduction and Inheritance

·  All organisms produce new organisms like themselves ______

·  Organisms transmit hereditary information to their offspring ______


·  Genetic Information in ______

·  ______

·  DNA contains instructions for traits ______

·  Make the structures and complex chemicals necessary for life ______

·  DNA in every body cell (______) is exactly alike

Sexual Reproduction

·  Hereditary information from ______of the same species are combined

·  Egg and sperm à ______(______)

·  Zygote contains hereditary information from ______

Asexual Reproduction

·  Hereditary information from ______, usually unicellular, ______that divides

·  Resulting cells contain ______information

·  Genetic information from ______


·  Populations of organisms change (______) over generations (time)

·  Explains how many different kinds of organisms came into existence ______

·  Explains how ______organisms are ______to past organisms

·  Explains why ______the way they do

·  Provides a basis for exploring the ______different groups of organisms

Natural Selection

·  Natural selection is the ______

·  Organisms that have certain______traits are better able to successfully reproduce than organisms that lack these traits

·  Survival of organisms with favorable traits cause ______

·  Also Called “______”

Interdependence of Organisms

·  Interaction of organisms with one another and with their environment ______

·  ______depend and ______DEPEND on each other for food & pollination ______

·  All organisms need substances such as ______from the environment

·  The ______depends on the healthy functioning of organisms in that environment

Matter, Energy, and Organization

·  Living things are ______

·  Require a ______to maintain their orderly state


·  ALL energy comes from the ______(directly or indirectly)

·  ______is the process by which some organisms capture the energy from the sun (______) and transform it into energy (______) that can be used by living things

·  Photosynthesis Equation:


·  Organisms that make their own food are called ______

·  ______– use solar energy (photosynthesis) to get energy

·  Convert ______into ______

·  ______– use different chemical processes to get energy


·  Organisms that must take in food to meet their energy needs are called ______
Consume autotrophs (______), other heterotrophs (______) or both (______) for their energy needs

·  Complex chemicals are broken down and ______and structures needed by organisms

The World of Biology: Characteristics of Life


·  All living things are composed of______

·  In multicellular organisms, many are ______to perform specific______

·  Cells are always very ______

·  The size of multi-celled organisms depends on ______


·  Organized at both the ______

·  Take in substances from the environment and organize them in complex ways

·  Specific cell structures (______) carry out particular functions


·  In ______, cells and groups of cells (tissues) are organized by their function

·  ______à tissues

·  ______à organs

·  ______à systems

·  Systems à ______

Energy Use

·  Use energy in a process called ______

·  ______

·  Require energy to maintain their molecular and cellular organization, grow and reproduce


·  Maintain stable ______conditions temperature, pH, etc.


·  Grow occurs as the result of ______and______

·  ______is the formation of two cells from a preexisting cell

·  New cells enlarge as they mature

·  When a cell grows to a size where its ______, the cell divides


·  The process by which an adult organism arise is called ______

·  Repeated cell divisions and cell ______


·  All species have the ability to______

·  ______but is essential for continuation of a species


·  ______in the external environment

·  Detect and respond to changes in ______

·  Coordinates it’s responses


·  Ability to adapt to their environment through the process of ______

·  Favorable characteristics are selected for and passed on to offspring called ______

·  Driven by natural selection or “______”

Scientific Method

Step 1: ______

·  Employing your ______to perceive objects or events

Asking a Question

·  Based on observations; one or more ______are generated

Step 2: ______

·  A statement is ______if evidence can be collected that either does or doesn’t support it

·  It can never be proven beyond doubt

·  Often must be ______

The Hypothesis

·  Is a statement made in advance that states the ______that will be obtained from testing the hypothesis

·  Often written in the form of an “______” statement

Step 3: ______

·  ______or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditions – conducting a controlled experiment

·  Based on a comparison of a ______with an ______group

·  Both groups are identical except for one factor (______)

·  Observations and measurements are taken for a particular factor (______) in both groups

·  Driven by or results from independent variable

·  Measuring

·  Involves ______data that can be measured in numbers &/or ______data information that isn’t numbers

·  Sampling

·  Technique of using a ______– a small part – to represent the entire population

Step 4: ______

·  Involves placing observations and measurement (data) in order

·  ______

·  Collected and organized data must be analyzed

·  Process of determining whether data are ______or whether they support or do not support a ______

Step 5: ______

·  Conclusions are made on the basis of facts, not observations

·  Often drawn from ______from a study or experiment

·  Should support the ______

·  Should be ______

Step 6: ______

·  Scientists must share the results of their ______with other scientists (peers)

·  Publish findings in______

·  Present their findings at ______

·  Scientists must be ______

·  Should not tamper with their data

·  Only publish & report tested & proven ideas


·  ______is essential to scientific process

·  Subject to examination and ______by other scientists

·  Allows scientists to build on the work of others


·  A ______may be formed after many related hypotheses have been tested and supported with experimental evidence

·  A ______statement of what is thought to be true

·  Supported by ______

·  Ties together related hypotheses


·  A ______that concisely explains an action or group of actions
e.g. Law of Gravity

·  Accepted to be______

·  ______

·  May be expressed as a math equation
e.g. E=mc2

Microscopes and Measurement

·  Microscopes – ______

·  Used to study organisms, cells, and cell parts

·  Increase in apparent size is called ______

·  The ability to show details clearly is called ______

·  Microscopes vary in both magnification and resolution

Compound Light Microscopes

·  Specimen mounted on a ______

·  Must be thinly______or very small

·  Pair of lenses

·  ______r lens (eye piece)

·  ______lens (nose piece)

·  Can be used to study ______specimens

·  ______determined by multiplying power of both lenses

·  Eyepiece 10X times Objective power (20X, 40X…)

·  Highest Maximum magnification is around ______X

Electron Microscope

·  ______EM (TEM)

·  Uses a beam of electrons to produce an enlarged image of very ______specimen on screen or photographic plate

·  Image focused by ______lenses

·  ______magnification

·  ______be used to view living specimens

·  ______EM (SEM)

·  ______image

·  ______-not sliced for viewing

·  Surface sprayed with ______coating

·  Also uses electron beam and fluorescent screen or photographic plates

·  ______magnification

·  Cannot be used to view______specimens


·  We will be using SI units or ______system when possible --- the WHOLE world uses it except us (USA)