DDW 09

Format of clash

Clash is the concept or responding to each argument in the next speech. This involves signposting the argument, extending your original argument, and answering the warrants of the opposing team’s arguments.

To signpost you should use the speech, number, and argument label. For example, “2ac 1 democrats push health care.” Now let’s practice JUST the signposting. The 1NC from yesterday’s demo debate is below. WRITE OUT how you would signpost to answer the arguments.

Heg Frontline – 1NC

1. Recruitment high – economy.

A.P. 4-20-09 Monday 8:02 AM GMT [Tough economy spurs Army recruiting]

With the United States in the throes of an economic recession, Army recruiters in southern New Mexicohave been busy.People looking for a career change, some after being laid off of their jobs and college students who have had difficulties finding a job as they are about to graduate, are exploring their options."It used to be that we might get two or three people a week who came in to talk to us," said Sgt. Lori Soto, one of several recruiters in Las Cruces. "Now, with the economy being what it is and people with a greater sense of patriotism, we're getting at least two or three people a day who come in and want to seriously talk to us."She said many aren't simply interested in the Army. They're ready to commit.First Sgt. Juan Vasquez, who oversees Army recruitment in El Paso, Texas, and southern New Mexico, said economic concerns and expansion at WhiteSandsMissileRange and FortBliss in El Paso have heightened interest."It's a guaranteed job, which is pretty hard to find these days with the economy being what it is," Vasquez said.Lionel Marquez, who will finish an engineering degree at New MexicoStateUniversity next month, said the number of students considering Army careers or careers in other military branches is growing."It used to be that the military was a last resort for a job after college, but it's not that way any more," Marquez said.Brig. Gen. David L. Mann, commander of WhiteSandsMissileRange, said while Army recruitment continues to be strong, challenges remain. Before coming to White Sands, Mann was deputy commander of Army recruiting.He said one out of every five youths fails to graduate from high school, and obesity among 12- to 19-year- olds has also kept the number of recruits from being higher.Vasquez said recruits cannot enlist if they have an adult felony record. They must at least have a General Educational Development certificate.

2. Readiness collapse is inevitable – critical equipment shortfalls.

William Perry & Michael Flournoy National Defense Magazine, May 2006, “The US Military: Under Strain and at Risk,”

The Army and the Army National Guard also have experienced equipment shortfalls that increased the level of risk to forces deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan and reduced the readiness of units in the United States. From the beginning of the Iraq war until as late as last year, the active Army experienced shortages of key equipment — such as radios, up-armored Humvees, trucks, machine guns, rifles, grenade launchers, and night vision equipment — for troops deploying overseas. While many of these shortfalls havenow been addressed for deployed units, the readiness ratings of many non-deployed units have dropped. This is particularly worrisome because some of these units are slated to deploy later this year. This situation is even worse for Army National Guard units, many of which have had to leave their equipment sets in Iraq for arriving units. These readiness shortfalls are only likely to grow as the war in Iraq continues to accelerate the wear-out rate of all categories of equipment for ground forces.

3. No impact to RMA – can’t predict future technologies.

Dr. Stephen J. Blank 96, Research Professor of National Security Affairs at the Strategic Studies Institute at the United States Army War College, “PREPARING FOR THE NEXT WAR: REFLECTIONS ON THE REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS”

Commanders recognize that the actual clash of arms takes belliger- ents, as chessplayers say, “out of the books” into terra incognita or the fog of war. Since no plan survives actual combat, and the art of forecasting is imperfect, efforts to predict with certainty the future of today’s revolution in military affairs (RMA) must inevitably fail. Any view of the RMA will necessarily be only a partial one. Indeed, de- spite the acceptance of the reality of the RMA, there is still a great deal of argument about its nature, extent, implications, and utility for all kinds of armed conflict.1

Heg Frontline – 1NC

4. Primacy is completely sustainable – The U.S. dominates all power categories.

Brooks & Wohlforth 08 Associate Professors of Government at Dartmouth College(Stephen G. & William C., World Out of Balance, p. 27-31)

“Nothing has ever existed like this disparity of power; nothing,” historian Paul Kennedy observes: “I have returned to all of the comparative defense spending and military personnel statistics over the past 500 years that I compiled in The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, and no other nation comes close.” Though assessments of U.S. power have changed since those words were written in 2002, they remain true. Even when capabilities are understood broadly to includeeconomic, technological, and other wellsprings of national power, they are concentrated in the United Statesto a degree never before experienced in the history of the modern system of states and thus never contemplated by balance-of-power theorists. The United spends more on defense that all the other major military powers combined, and most of those powers are its allies. Its massive investments in the human, institutional, and technological requisites of military power, cumulated over many decades, make any effort to match U.S. capabilities even more daunting that the gross spending numbers imply. Military research and development (R&D) may best capture the scale of the long-term investment that give the United States a dramatic qualitative edge in military capabilities. As table 2.1 shows, in 2004 U.S. military R&D expenditures were more than six times greater than those of Germany, Japan, France, and Britain combined. By some estimates over half the military R&D expenditures in the world are American. And this disparity has been sustainedfor decades: over the past 30 years, for example, the United States has invested over three times more than the entire European Union on military R&D. These vast commitments have created a preeminence in military capabilities vis-à-vis all the other major powers that is unique after the seventeenth century. While other powers could contest U.S. forces near their homelands, especially over issues on which nuclear deterrence is credible, theUnited States is and will long remain the only state capable of projecting major military power globally. This capacity arises from “command of the commons” – that is, unassailable military dominance over the sea, air, and space. As Barry Posen puts it, Command of the commons is the key military enabler of the U.S global power position. It allows the United Statesto exploit more fully other sources of power, including its own economic and military might as well as the economic and military might of its allies. Command of the commons also helps the United States to weaken its adversaries, by restricting their access to economic, military, and political assistance….Command of the commons provides the United States with more useful military potential for a hegemonic foreign policy than any other offshore power has ever had. Posen’s study of American military primacy ratifies Kennedy’s emphasis on the historical importance of the economic foundations of national power.It is the combination of military and economic potential that sets the United States apart from its predecessors at the top of the international system. Previous leading states were either great commercial and naval powers or great military powers on land, never both. The British Empire in its heyday and the United States during the Cold War, for example, shared the world with other powers that matched or exceeded them in some areas. Even at the height of the Pax Britannica, the United Kingdom was outspent, outmanned, and outgunned by both France and Russia. Similarly, at the dawn of the Cold War the United States was dominant economically as well as in air and naval capabilities. But the Soviet Union retained overall military parity, and thanks to geography and investment in land power it had a superior ability to seize territory in Eurasia.The United States’ share of world GDP in 2006, 27.5 percent, surpassed that of any leading state in modern history, with the sole exception of its own position after 1945 (when World War II had temporarily depressed every other major economy).The size of the U.S economy means that its massive military capabilities required roughly 4 percent of its GDP in 2005, far less than the nearly 10 percent it averaged over the peak years of the Cold War, 1950-70, and the burden borne by most of the major powers of the past. As Kennedy sums up, “Being Number One at great cost is one thing; being the world’s single superpower on the cheap is astonishing.”

Write your signposting here


Now, write an answer to each 1NC argument

For the 2ac, remember that you should extend 1ac cards – but remember to make the argument first and then give the cite. For the purpose of this clash drill, you can make up the cites.

Go back under your signposting and write at least 1 answer to each of the 1NC arguments.

Now, give a 2ac!

Practice giving a 2NC

Given the following 2ac, spend some time thinking of analytic arguments to make as a 2NC. Use this paper to write out your signposting and arguments.
Health Care

1. GI bill massively expands military education

The Times-Union 6-28-2009 Final Edition EDITION, lexis

The new GI Bill invests $2 billion in educating U.S. military personnel and veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq at colleges and universities nationwide. It's the most comprehensive package of education benefits for service members since the original GI Bill of Rights was signed during World War II.

The new benefits package expands on the 1944 model. It pays tuition, but also offers a monthly housing stipend and up to $1,000 a year for books and supplies. The benefits are expected to increase the number of veterans going to school in the next two to three years by 20 percent, according to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

2. Military spending has nothing to do with Health Care—it obviously wouldn’t trade off

3. Troop increases are inevitable—

4. Turn –

5. Congress supports enlistment benefits for army.

Franklin L. Hagenbeck, Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, G1, Department of the Army, 4-6-2006. [CQ Congressional Testimony, Policy, Compensation and Benefits Overview, p. lexis]

Maintaining an equitable and effective compensation package is paramount in sustaining a superior force. A strong benefits package is essential to recruit and retain the quality, dedicated Soldiers necessary to execute the National Military Strategy. In recent years, the Administration and Congress have supported compensation and entitlements programs designed to support our Soldiers and their families. An effective compensation package is critical to efforts in the Global War on Terror as we transition to a more joint, expeditionary, and cohesive force.

Congress opposed to lowering standards.

Michael D. Rochelle, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-1, US Army, 2-15-2007. [CQ Congressional Testimony, Recruiting and Retention, lexis]

Some Members of Congress have had concerns over the quality of the force, when viewed by the DOD standard of high school diploma graduates and Mental Category IV Soldiers. However, all Soldiers who enlist into the Army are qualified for their respective military occupation specialties - their jobs. No exceptions.

Match the 2nc to the 2ac argument

Below you will find the T 2ac from yesterday’s debate and some of the 2nc blocks. Try to match the 2nc block to the 2ac argument.

2acAT: For Persons Living in Poverty

1. We meet: College-First target persons living in poverty. Extend Kilburn & Asch from the 1ac.

2. Counter definition: Social services must be adapted to persons without a formal education.


Random House '9

intended to belong to, or be used in connection with: equipment for the army; a closet for dishes.

Poverty is the lack of formal education

Taylor, Theodore J. March 1968 “A Regional Approach to the War Against Poverty.” Education resource information center.

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of poverty in some rural areas of Texas, to determine and evaluate the attitudes of local leaders toward the anti-poverty effort, and to prescribe remedial action. The extent of poverty was based on the incidence of low income, then questionnaires were developed, tested, and used to obtain information from county, city, business, professional, and religious leaders, and representatives of the poor. Much of the work of the project staff was inconclusive, and in many cases the data were insufficient. Some conclusions were: (1) an annual census-type survey in the area, combined with an input-output analysis conducted by the regional planning body, can eliminate the deficiency in reliable, disaggregate data; (2) the most important form of poverty is the lack of formal education; (3) transportation facilities, racial discrimination, and lack of skills contribute to this lack; (4) poverty can as easily be identified by its effects as by its causes, and these effects contribute to a circular process of continuing poverty over time; and (5) private charitable groups are totally inadequate to the task of eliminating poverty, but the American economy is capable of supporting the anti-poverty effort while remaining affluent. (The questionnaire and a bibliography are included.) (nl)

3. An exclusive interpretation of “for” is overlimiting. Most conventional social services for persons living in poverty like Medicaid go to the non-poor.

4. The only topical affirmatives under their interpretation would be new programs that lack a predictable literature base.

5. No case meets, rich people will always find ways to steal federal aid

6. Our interpretation sets the best limit—it requires persons in poverty to be the main object of the plan action but doesn’t exclude core affs like Medicaid reform, prisoners, etc.

7. The negative has to prove that the affirmative is unreasonable to debate. Good is good enough.

8. Potential abuse means the aff loses every debate – the neg can claim they lost ground

9. Competing interpretations is a rigged game for the negative to exclude.
Fill in the blanks with what 2ac argument it answers or if it is an overview.

AT: ______

AT 2ac #3 overlimiting

  1. factually wrong – Medicaid is definitionally for those in economic need

Medicaid webpage 09

How do I know if I qualify for Medicaid?

You may be covered by Medicaid if:

You have high medical bills.

You receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

You meet certain income, resource, age, or disability requirements.

  1. multiple cases are possible – force them to prove the impact to targeting any of their affs to the poor

AT: ______

Topical affirmatives will create a social service that is directly target to persons in poverty. Topical affirmatives include lifting the citizenship requirement on welfare, providing access to abortion for those on Medicaid, and provide educational incentives for those people below the poverty line. Their own aff would be topical it they put in a specific targeting argument.

This is not an extra-topicality argument – the grammatical need to focus/target the policy is written into the resolution so if they fail to do that they have failed to comply with the resolution. If I am voting FOR Obama for President, my vote is exclusively for him and not also for McCain. If Dylan is cutting cards FOR his advantage file, his intention is to cut cards for the 300 CPs he has to finish and not to also cut cards for all of the case negs.

AT: ______

AT 2ac #5 rich people steal

  1. its not a question of whether or not individuals break the law to steal it, but whether under legitimate regulatory system only poor people are helped.
  2. Turn: sticking to the government issue poverty line PREVENTS this. If it is a government issued program, than there are safeguards and checks to prevent theft from the affs.

AT: ______

AT 2ac #2 counterinrepretation

  1. not conclusive – this definition does not say whether it is inclusive or exclusive.
  2. education is a poor limit – any case can impact education for large sums of people. They justify giving Dartmouth billion more dollars because it might help the students on financial aid.
  3. prefer the OPR - every joe scmoo has a definition of poverty. Since topicality is ALL ABOUT LIMITS the government definition is an easy bright line to draw to minimize the definitions we need to evaluate.

4. Social service programs include programs targeted at only the poor – means they violate social services, too