Water polo

Playing area Uniform dimensions are illustrated. The minimum depth for major competitions is 1.80m. All lines must be visible throughout the game. Suggested colors are: goal line and half distance line – white; 2m line – red; 4m line – yellow. There must be sufficient room for the referees to walk along the edge of the pool. Goals must be painted white and fixed firmly

Turn bench

DRESS: Players wear suits/trunks. One team must wear blue caps, and the other white. Goalkeepers wear red caps. All caps must be tied under the chin. If a player loses his cap, he must replace it at the next stoppage. Caps are numbered on the sides -- the goalkeeper being #1 and the other players 2-13. No dangerous articles may be worn. No player may grease or oil his body.

TEAMS: A team comprises 13 players of whom six are substitutes.

SUBSTITUTES: Except in case of injury or accident, a substitute may only enter the game:

a.during the interval after a goal

b.before extra time

c.after a teammate has been excluded from the rest of the game
for showing disrespect, wearing oil or committing a third
personal fault.

The team captain must inform a referee of all substitutions. No substitutes are allowed in cases of brutality.

DURATION: Play lasts for four periods of seven minutes' actual playing time. There is a two minute interval between each period for changing ends.

Players in the water may only leave at an interval when injured or with the referee's permission.

For and accident or injury the referee may suspend play for up to three minutes.

If there is a tie and a definite result is required, there is a five-minute break, then two periods of three minutes' play with one-minute interval between. This pattern is continued until a decision is reached.

START OF PLAY: Players take up position on their own goal lines about 1 m apart form either goal post (only tow players are allowed between the posts).

One the referee then blows the whistle and throws the ball into the pool.

RESTARTING PLAY: a) After a goal, players take up any position in their own half. The team conceding the goal restarts play, when one referee whistles, by one player passing the ball to a teammate, who must be behind the half distance when he receives the ball.

b) After a stoppage for injury, etc. or after a simultaneous foul by the opponents, one referee throws the ball into the water giving both teams equal chance of gaining possession.

PLAYING THE BALL: Apart from the goalkeeper players are NOT permitted to: a) touch the ball with both hands simultaneously; b) strike the ball with a clenched fist.

They are permitted to: (1) dribble with the ball; (2) seize the ball; (3) lift the ball out of the water; (4) remain stationary with the ball; (5) pass or shoot the ball; and play the ball when it is in the air.

A team must concede a free throw, if it fails to shoot at the goal within 35sec. of gaining possession of the ball.

GOALKEEPERS: A goalkeeper may stand, jump from the floor of the pool, walk, use both hands and punch the ball.

He must not go or touch the ball beyond the half-distance line, but may shoot at his opponent's goal as long as he is still within his own half of the pitch.

He must not hold the bar, rail, or trough at the end of the pool.

SCORING: A goal is score when the ball completely crosses the goal line between the posts and under the crossbar, providing it has not been punched and at least two players have touched it after a start or restart (not including a goalkeeper's attempt to stop a shot).

The ball may be dribbled into the goal.

The team scoring the most goals is the winner.

OUT OF PLAY: The ball is out of play when:

a)it hits the side of the pool and bounces back into the water;

b)it is sent out at the side of the pool;

c)it completely crosses the goal line.

In cases a) and b), the ball is returned to play by the nearest opposing player, who takes a free throw from where the ball went out. If an attacker sends the ball out of play over the goal line, a goal throw is awarded.

If the defender sends the ball over his own goal line, a corner throw is awarded.

A CORNER THROW is taken by the attacker nearest where the ball went out of play. It must be taken from the 2m mark on the side of the pool where the ball went out.

Only the defending goalkeeper may be in the 2m area when the throw is taken.

A GOAL THROW is taken by the defending goalkeeper. It must be taken from the goal line between the goal posts.

FOULS AND MISCONDUCT: Offenses are classified as ordinary fouls (penalized by a free throw to the other team) and major fouls (penalized by personal faults and periods of exclusion).

ORDINARY FOULS: It is an ordinary foul to:

a)take or hold the ball under water when tackled (1);

b)swim beyond the goal line before the referee's signal to start the game;

c)assist a player at the start;

d)hold onto or push off from the goal posts or the sides of the pool, or hold onto the rails except at the start or a restart;

e)stand or walk on the floor of the pool ;

f)punch the ball;

g)touch a referee's neutral throw before it reaches the water;
h) jump, from, the floor of the pool;

i) deliberately impede an opponent unless he has the ball;

j) play the ball, with both hands at the same time;

k) push an opponent;

1) be within 2m of the opposing goal line except when behind the line of the ball;

m) waste time (including having possession for more than 35sec. without shooting);

n) taking a penalty throw incorrectly.

MAJOR FOULS: It is a major foul to:

a) Kick or strike an opponent (2);

b) Commit any brutal act (3);

c)Illegallystop a goal inside the 4m area (4);

d) Hold, sink or pull back an opponent not holding the ball;

e) Interfere with the taking of a free throw;

f) Re-enter the water improperly when an excluded player or substitute;

g) Intentionally splash water in a opponent's face;

h) Continually commit ordinary fouls with intent.

After a MAJOR FOUL the offending player is awarded a personal fault and is ordered out of the water for 35sec, until a goal is scored or when the defending team retake possession of the ball, whichever is sooner.

A player is excluded from the game when he has three personal faults or penalties recorded against him. Only when the penalized player is to be permanently excluded from the game may a substitute take his place. He may be replaced by a substitute immediately if a penalty thrower otherwise replaced as outlined above for a personal foul punishes thethird foul.

FREE THROW: The player may:

a)throw the ball;

b)drop the ball, into the water and dribble it before passing.
The throw must be made in such a way that other players can see the
ball leave the thrower's hand. At least two players must touch the
ball before a goal can be scored.

Any free throw awarded for a foul in the 2m area must be taken from the 2m line opposite where the foul occurred. Other free throws are taken from where the offense occurred.

Free throw