Biology 312--Fall 2016Practice Final ExamName:

EcologyLab day/time:

I. Fill in the blank with a word or phrase (1 pt for each question)

1. ______The movement of a tectonic plate to slide under an adjacent plate and begin convection is called ______.

2. ______is the match between plant morphology and pollinator morphology.

3. ______More eyes, group defense, and the confusion effect are all examples of benefits of ______.

4. ______is a tactic used by prey that depends on predator learning.

5. ______The ______effect, with concomitant changes in the earth’s temperature, is due to the absorption/emission of longwave radiation by certain gases in the atmosphere.

6.______The type of interspecies interactions that involves one party benefiting without negatively affecting the other is called ______.

7. ______As you get higher up in a canopy, you are likely to find ______lobed leaves, and a greater concentration of

______which is used for photosynthesis.

8. ______The population size that an environment can fully maintain is called the ______.

9. ______The use of camouflage to hide from predators is an example of ______coloration.

10. ______Snowhare populations have been found to be affected greatly by both lynx populations and ______.

11. ______A high mortality among young followed by a high survivorship would exhibit a ______survivorship curve.

12.______Actively altering a competitor’s use of a resource is known as ______competition.

13. ______The biome characterized as occurring above 65° latitude, with a cold, dry climate and vegetation consisting of sedges, forbs, shrubs, lichens, and mosses, is called the ______.

14. ______The type of growth that occurs when generations do not overlap is classified as ______growth.

15. ______Mycorrhizae are a symbiotic relationship between ______and

plants; they increase plant nutrient uptake,

______especially of ______.

16. ______The competitive exclusion principle states that two species that are ______competitive cannot persist

17. ______Generalists usually inhabit more ______environments whereas specialists inhabit more ______environments.


18. ______Hutchinson’s concept of a niche involved species existing in a ______which is made up of all of that species’ limiting factors.

19. ______occurs when aerobic respiration of bacteria on the Gulf coast seafloor that decompose dead algae consumes ______, which decreasesto <2 ppm.


20. ______A ______species has a disproportionately large effect on community structure, compared to its abundance/biomass.

21. ______The use of warning colors is called ______coloration.

22. ______A set of spatially isolated populations linked together

23. ______Water striders and other small insects can literally walk on water because the ______of water counteracts the force of gravity on their low mass.

24. ______The chemical interference exhibited by plants is called ______.

II. Short answer / essay (note points for each question) Be careful to answer all parts of each question!

25.List and briefly describe the three types of mimicry that occur between species.

a) What are the benefits of each of those types of mimicry? How do they work to help prey?

b) Why would mimicry depend on predators having a learning ability?

26. Explain the differences between geometric, exponential, and logistic growth, and draw a graph that illustrates each one.

a)What factors might lead to each type of growth?

b)Explain the concept of a carrying capacity in terms of population limitations.

c)Provide one biological example of each type of growth.

27.In terms of population dynamics, describe how studies might look at the growth and health of a population. Use the terms birth rate, fecundity, net reproductive rate, average generation time, and per capita rate of increase in your explanation.

28. Explain how plants are adapted to light. Give 3 adaptations in your explanation.

a)How are animals adapted to temperature? Give 3 adaptations in your explanation.

b)What is the thermoneutral zone, and how does insulation affect the range outside of the thermoneutral zone?

29. Adaptations to predator-prey interactions include morphological, chemical, and behavioral adaptations. However, predators have adapted differently from prey. Provide one example for each of the three types of adaptations for predators AND prey. Explain how these adaptations aid in either capture or escape.