ADP No.39/150601

Total ADP Cost Rs:8.000 Million

Duration 02 Years





1. Name of the Project:Study on the causes of calf mortality and measures to reduce losses in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

2. Location of the Project:The Project will be implemented in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
3.Authorities responsible for:

  • Indicate name of the agency responsible for sponsoring execution, operation and maintenance:

(i) SponsoringGovernment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperative Department, Peshawar.

(ii) ExecutionDirector General (Research)

Livestock & Dairy Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar.

(iii) Operation & maintenanceDirector

Livestock Research & Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar.

PRO/ Station Director Livestock Research & Development Station,Surezai.

(iv) Time required for the

Completion of project (in months): 24 Months (2015-16 to 2016-17)

  • In case of more than one agency, give their component wise responsibility. For provincial projects, name of the concerned federal ministry be provided:

1)Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperative Department, Peshawar. Responsible for sponsoring and monitoring of the project.

2)Director General, Livestock Research & Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar is responsible to plan, execute and operate all the activities of the project.

3)Director, Livestock Research & Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar responsible for implementation of the project, procurement, results and its propagation.

4.(a) Plan Provision

  • If the project is included in the medium term/five year plan, specify actual allocation:

ADP 2015–16 with a total cost of Rs: 8.000 million, having allocation of Rs: 3.000 million for current financial year.

  • If not included in the above current five-year plan, how it is now possible to be accommodated/inter/intra Sectoral adjustment in allocation of other resources may be indicated:

Not Applicable.

  • If the project is proposed to be financed out of block provision; indicate:

Total Block Provision / Amount already Committed / Amount proposed for this Project / Balance Available
------/ ------/ ------/ ------

(b) Provision in the current year ADP (2015-16)

Rs: 03.000 Million

5. Project Objectives:

The objectives of the sector/sub-sector as indicated in the medium term/five year plan be reproduced. Indicate objectives of the project and linkage between the proposed project and the Sectoral objectives.

The specific objectives of the project are:

  1. To document the causes of calf mortality.
  2. To control the causes of heavy calf mortality.
  3. To improve the management practices of calf rearing.
  4. To convert the dairy industry into successful enterprise.

Expected results:

i)Calf mortality will be reduced and thus not only the income of farmers will increase but also the chances of selection of replacement heifers and bulls get increase.

ii)Meat & milk production will be increase

iii)Diseases in the animals associated with the management and nutrition will be minimized.

In case of revised project, indicate objective of the project if different from original PC-I.

Not applicable

6. Description, justification and technical parameters of the project:

Existing facilities:

The Livestock Research & Development Station Surezai Peshawar is situated in MeraSurezai about 27 Km away from Peshawar. It has total 178.2 acres land while 10acres land at Fodder section. It has Farm Management Division including animal health section which provides in time treatment to the farm animals. The section also contains one small level laboratory having basic facilities for detection of parasitic diseases. However, for bacteriological tests samples will sent to Veterinary Research Institute, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar and for feed analysis to Center of Animal Nutrition, Directorate of Livestock Research and Development, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar.

Despite the progress in industrial development, agriculture still provides employment for a majority of the people in Pakistan. Livestock is an integral part of our agriculture and there is hardly any farm in the country, which does not have livestock. These animals are the main sources of quality food and daily income to the farmers. The importance of livestock and the dairy animals in particular for our farmers is obvious and indeed for consumer also, because the availability of good quality milk and meat is becoming costly day by day. There are some very important breeds of livestock, which are well adapted to humid condition, tolerant to diseases and converters of low quality roughages into milk, meat and draught power. The genetic potential of our livestock is much higher than the production level we are getting. However, their potential can be increased by protecting them from different diseases and better feeding. If properly fed and managed our livestock, substantial increase in milk production can be obtained from existing livestock. Preventing early calf mortality can play an important role in development of an efficient and productive livestock industry. Unfortunately, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, not enough attention is given to young calves in terms of their feeding and in time vaccination and treatment. Like other provinces of the Pakistan the human population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has also increased over the years and their requirements for milk and beef and other animal products have also increased.

Calves are the future stock of the herd. If the calf mortality is high the chances of good replacement heifers/bulls get reduced and one of the products of the farm for income generation gets waste. It is therefore, essential to reduce calf mortality and bring it down below 10%. Therefore this project is designed for awareness & education of farmers. The farmers will be educated for proper management, feeding, diseases including worm/ parasitic infestation and feed management for improving calves health and immunity, which will effectively reduce the mortality rate.

Livestock population:

The estimated livestock population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, according to livestock census reports for various years is given in table-1.

Table-1 Livestock number in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Species / 1986Number ('000) / 1996Number ('000) / 2006Number* ('000) / 2013-14**
Number ('000)
Cattle / 3285 / 4242 / 5912 / 7940
Buffaloes / 1271 / 1390 / 1913 / 2422
Sheep / 2231 / 2856 / 2649 / 3783
Goats / 4197 / 6763 / 9682 / 11988
Camel / 48 / 55 / 63 / 70

*Livestock Census 2006, ** Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-14

Feed Balancing:-

From the livestock population figures presented earlier for cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats a calculation can be made for the expected annual demand of total digestible nutrients (TDN).

Table -2. Estimates of Annual Feed Requirements for Livestock in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Species TDN required Total TDN
(Kg/head/annum) (000) (Tones/annum)(000)
Cattle 1.369 4.529
Buffaloes 1.570 1.42


Buffaloes and cows have the main contribution in milk and meat production. Livestock, the vital sector of our economy contributing Rs.53 billion in GNP annually. In view of our increasing human population, the supply position of dietary nutrients viz; milk, meat and butter is going to be the worst in the days to come as their demand will increase by 50% in the year 2020 for increased population of 203 million. At present, a huge amount of about Rs.700 million is being spent from exchequer annually on the import of dried milk. The trend of meat price is also on increase and the growing demand of milk, butter, meat and other products for human population emphasizes the need for increased care to protect the young stock from microbial diseases and malnutrition so that production is increased.(UN Department of Economic and Social Affair Population Division)

The highest mortality (39.0%) was recorded in buffalo neonatal calves in Pakistan (Zaman et al., 2006). The prevailing system in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa about calf rearing is very disastrous.The commercial farmers of this province do not rear calves at their farms. They sell the calves to the butcher just at the age of first week. The main reasons of this malpractice are huge mortality at pre weaning age stage and high milk price resultantly the farmers get rid of their calves and thus drain of genetic worth is continuously practices in this month.

Therefore this project aims to investigate and minimize the factors, which contribute to early calf mortality in cows and buffaloes. Determination of such clues may possibly be a great tool to take appropriate measure to reduce the death losses and to improve the sources of protein availability.

Provide technical parameters i.e. input and output of the project in quantitative terms. Also discuss technology aspects of the project.

Project Plan of Operation:-

According to the plan of operation (2015-16 to 2016-17) major activities of the project are planned in a phase structure. The whole program will be built up in two phases. The project will be implemented in district Peshawar.

40 No of Buffalo/ cow calves (male/female) will be maintained on milk replacer in individual hutches at the station while 60 in registered farms. Ten (10) commercial dairy farms will be selected and registered in district for conducting this research study. For the visits of selected farms a vehicle of the Livestock Research & Development Station Surezai will be allocated on full time.The routine management practices will be done by the farmers themselves, while Technical inputs, facilitation in tools and nutrition provision and monitoring activities will be provided to these farms by the project execution staff. Performance and productive parameters in terms of weight gain, health status (immunity status etc) will be recorded regularly.

At the end of the project the Animal health Section LR&D stationsurezai will be able to conduct basic laboratory tests. A close coordination will be developed with the University of Agriculture Peshawar, The technical staff of Directorate of Livestock Research & Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa will use these facilities for conducting Research and training to Livestock Farmers as well as the veterinary science student of University of Agriculture, Peshawar will utilize it for training, internship, research and exposure visits of different delegates. The expected results of the project will be helpful to minimize the mortality rate of calves. The research papers published will be further helpful for the researchers.

7.Capital cost estimate:

  • Indicate date of estimation of the project: July, 2015
  • Basis of determining the capital cost be provided. It include market survey schedule rates estimation on the previous work done etc; as per prevailing rate:

Rates included in the PC-1 are based on schedule rates, market analysis and on the basis of previous similar nature of work done by the department.

  • Provide year wise estimate of physical activities by main components:


Items / Unit / 1st Year / 2nd Year / Total
Purchase of Machinery Equipment’s and its installation(Annexed at Page-19). / % / 50% / 50% / 100%
Manufacture of portable calf hutches(Design Annexed at page No. 24) / Nos / 13 / 07 / 20
Registration of Dairy Farmsin Peshawar / Nos / 10 / 0 / 10
Procurement of animalsSpecies: Buffalo/cattle calves Sex: male/female, Age: pre-weaned. / Nos / 15 / 25 / 40
Purchase of inputs i.e Medicine, chemicals, glassware, feed ingredients, diagnostic kit etc. / % / 40% / 60% / 100%
Research activities (Annexed at page No.23) / % / 50% / 50% / 100%
Field day: 02 field days will be conducted at district Peshawar to trained/aware livestock farmers regarding scientific feeding and management of calves / No / 1 / 1 / 2
Farmers training: 20 livestock farmersper training will be trained regarding scientific feeding and management of calves / Nos / 1 / 3 / 4
  • Phasing of capital cost be worked out on the basis of each item of work as stated above and provide as per following:

Particulars / No / Unit Cost (Rs) / Financial year 2015-16 / Financial year 2016-17 / Total
AO12 / Project Allowance/Honoraria
As per project policy for
Project In charge (PRO/Station Director LR &DS Surezai),
Senior Research Officer,
Research Officer, / 03 / 0.086 / 0.086 / 0.172
A01277 / Daily Paid Labours (DPL) / 03 / 0.141 / 0.309 / 0.450
Total Establishment / 0.227 / 0.395 / 0.622
A09 / Purchase of D/Goods / 1.065 / 1.060 / 2.125
A091 / Manufacture calf hutches: / 20 / 0.03 / 0.390 / 0.210 / 0.600
A09106 / Laboratory equipment’s and other tools( Detail at Annex-I) / 0.575 / 0.700 / 1.275
A09107 / Furniture & Fixture(Detail Annex- II) / 0.100 / 0.150 / 0.250
A13 / Repair of Goods / 0.000 / 0.020 / 0.020
A13101 / Repair of Mach: & Equip: / 0.000 / 0.020 / 0.020
Total Operating Expenses / 1.708 / 3.525 / 5.233
A038 / Total Travel & Transportation / 0.165 / 0.215 / 0.380
A03805 / Travelling Allowance / 0.050 / 0.100 / 0.150
A03806 / Transportation Charges / 0.015 / 0.015 / 0.030
A03807 / POL Charges / 0.100 / 0.100 / 0.200
Total General / 1.543 / 3.310 / 4.853
A03901 / Stationery Charges / 0.020 / 0.050 / 0.070
A03907 / Printing & Publication / 0.020 / 0.050 / 0.070
A03905 / Newspaper &Books / 0.050 / 0.150 / 0.200
A03907 / Adver: Charges / 0.020 / 0.050 / 0.070
A03942 / Chemical/Glassware (Annex-III) / 0.140 / 0.140 / 0.280
A03927 / Medicine and vaccines(Annex-IV) / 0.08 / 0.100 / 0.180
A096 / Purchase of Livestock / 40 / 0.02 / 0.300 / 0.500 / 0.800
A03942 / Feeding charges / 0.775 / 1.946 / 2.721
A03903 / Field day( Farmers) / 02 / 0.05 / 0.050 / 0.050 / 0.100
A03801 / Training (Farmers) / 4 / 0.075 / 0.075 / 0.225 / 0.300
A03970 / Others Miscellaneous / 0.013 / 0.049 / 0.062
Grand Total / 3.000 / 5.000 / 8.00

BudgetSummaryRS: (M):

Particulars / 1st year (2015-16) / 2nd year (2016-17) / Total
Total Establishment / 0.227 / 0.395 / 0.622
Purchase of D/goods / 1.065 / 1.060 / 2.125
Total Repair / 0.000 / 0.020 / 0.020
Total Operating Expenses / 1.708 / 3.525 / 5.233
Total / 3.000 / 5.000 / 8.000

Total cost of the project8.000 Million Revenue: 8.000 Million

Date of estimation of the projectJuly 2015

LandLivestock R&D Station Surezai, Peshawar.

Capital:Rs: 0.00 Million

8. Annual Operating and maintenance cost after completion of the project:

Not Applicable

9. Demand and supply analysis:


10. Financial plan and mode of financing

Sources of financing:

a) Equity: ADP 2015-16

b) Debt:Not applicable

c) Grants along with sourcesNot applicable

d) Weighted cost of capital---

Total cost of the projectRs.8.000Million

11. Project benefit and analysis

The demand for milk & meat is increasing day by day. All the dairy development activities depends upon the plenty availability of required balance ration. The improved breed of cattle and buffalo can easily be raised in these areas. However the improved breed of animals needs plenty of needful feed and rations to get optimum production from these animals. The recent research studies showed that calves protected early from diseases and malnutrition can give better result in persistent production of milk & meat from high yielding animals. During the implementation stage-I and stage-II the research benefits will be transferred to the progressive farmers and interested investor of dairy industry.

The benefit of research will be transfer to farmers’ community so that they will be able to:

  • Keeps the calves healthy in project area.
  • Have Minimum risk of nutritional deficiency disease.
  • Increase milk and meat production in future.

The Livestock Research & Development Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar aims at reducing the poverty of the rural population (particularly small holders, tenant, the land less farmers and women), enhance their income, and improve the standards of people living in the more backward areas of Peshawar by assisting to create a semi-permanent structure to support village-level development and by providing capacity-building and training support, the project aims at contributing to institutional reforms.


The project will assist to produce high quality and priced more milk and meat in future. For this purpose, the infrastructure proposed in the project will be operationalize in District Peshawar and the experiences got in 2 years will be multiplied to further cities in coming year. The major benefit of which will be increase in the income of the farmers, changing subsistence livestock in to sustainable milk & meat production and improve its products quality. This will enhance milk and meat production, which will ultimately increase the farmer’s profitability by 15-20 percent.


The project will support investment by providing solutions to problems confronting the livestock industry, by means of technical knowhow, by providing economic analysis and surveys, feasibilities studies and market intelligence.

  • Social benefits with indicators:

The project will assist to create self-employment opportunities and provide the animal as well as human health facilities and hence decrease the unemployment in the rural areas, at the door steps and ultimately the poverty reduction.

  • Environmental impact:

There is no direct or indirect ill effect on the environment; however the socioeconomic effect on environment is likely to be improved. The rearing of clean healthy calves will result in production of good quality milk and meat.


As per planned 40 calves (male/female) will be purchased and reared at research station. Similarly, 60 calves would be reared at 10 registered commercial dairy farms in district Peshawar by the farmers themselves. 2 trainings shall be arranged annually for farmers. In addition, 2 farmers’ field days shall also be arranged. At least 1-2 research papers will be published. It is also expected that sufficient numbers of calves will be reared by other farmers by observing the leader farmers. Hence the indirect benefits are attached with the successful implementation of proposed project are unquantifiable.

However, reduction in calf mortality will be reduced and thus not only the income of farmers will be increase but also the variably of chances of selection of replacement heifers and bulls get increase. In turn, meat & milk production of the province will be increase. It is expected that it will enhance the economic status of farmers of the province in particular and country in general.

  • Profit and loss account and cash flow statement (in Millions):

Year / Profit / Cash flow
1st year / 3 / 3
2nd year / 8 / 5
  • Net Present Value (NPV) 1.59 at 7.5% interest rate
  • Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)1.4 at 7.5% interest rate
  • Internal Financial Rate of Return (IFRR) 20%
  • Unit Cost AnalysisN/A

Detail of above analysis:

The duration of this project is 2 years although; the economic benefits are expected to prevail much longer. When the project will be complete, it will improve the socio-economic status of the livestock farmers by reducing calf mortality and will improve Animal Health and quality of its products. During the project 200 farmers will be trained through training and field daysregarding proper scientific management of livestock, which will reduced livestock mortality and will improve animal’s health, that will enhance their socio-economic status. The direct economic benefits are anticipated as shown in above column during the project stage. Moreover the project benefit after the completion of the project will increased manifold.

Employment generation (Direct and indirect):


Impact of delays on project cost and viability: