**CONTENTS 1 (80) **

Comprehensive Ballistic Analysis of High Precision Descent Control of a Prospective Manned Spacecraft in the Earth’s Atmosphere. S.I. Kudryavtsev 5

Analysis of the Dynamics of Simulation Landing of a Full-Sized Lander Replica on the Lunar Surface.*V.V. Malyshev, A.V. Starkov, M.A. Titkov* 14

Ballistic Development of Return Trajectory of a Spacecraft Aimed at Providing Direct High-Precision Landing at VostochnyCosmodrome. V.I. Mironov, V.G. Sobolevsky 21

Advantages of the Moon Capture Orbit in Forming the Orbit of its Artificial Satellite.V.N. Borovenko 30

An Analysis of Optimal Maneuvers of Acceleration and Deceleration for Space Flight to Moon.*E.S. Gordienko, V.V. Ivashkin, V. Lu* 37

Development of the Program of Controlling the Orbital Motion of the International Space Station.*E.K. Melnikov, N.S.Roslyakova, A.I. Smirnov* 48

Synchronous Launch of Spacecrafts in the Context of a Double-Launch Flight Pattern to the Moon.R.F. Murtazin 56

Providing Hardware and Mathematical Software for the Study of the Earth’s Surface Onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station under the Program «Hurricane».*M.Yu. Belyaev, L.V. Desinov, D.Yu. Karavayev, E.E. Sarmin, O.A. Yurina* 63

The Study of Catastrophic Events That May Lead to Environmental Challenges under the Program «Hurricane» Onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station.*M. Yu. Belyaev, L.V. Desinov, D.Yu. Karavayev, E.E. Sarmin, O.A. Yurina* 71

Determining the Attitude of the Orbital Station Using the Data from the Onboard Computer Complex.A.M. Titov 80

Spectral Analysis of Telemetry Processes.N.V. Matveyev...... 88

Temporal Variations of Geopotential Coefficients in the Structure of Numerical-Analytical Models of the Earth Rotation Parameters.*S.S. Krylov, Yu.G. Markov, A.S. Philippova* 93

Modelling of the Oscillatory Motion of the Terrestrial Pole during Significant Abnormalities.*V.V. Perepyolkin, V.N. Pochukaev, G.P. Sachkov* 98

Effects of Elastic Deformations on the Translational and Rotational Motion of a Body in the Central Gravitational Field of Forces.*Yu.G. Markov, I.V. Skorobogatykh, Do Chung Bo* 106

The Concept and Possible Scenario of a Demonstration Flight to the Potentially Dangerous 2001 JV1 Asteroid with the Aim of Changing its Orbit by an Artificial Explosion.*T.I. Afanasyeva, Yu.F. Kolyuka, V.G. Lavrentyev, Yu.M. Lipnitsky, S.A. Meshcheryakov, A.M. Chervonov* 114

Designing a Ballistic Flight Scheme of a Spacecraft and Conducting Trajectory Observations to Solve the Task of Demonstration Flights to the 2001JV1 Asteroid. T.I. Afanasyeva, Yu.F. Kolyuka 121

Short-Period Comets and the Earth: Gravitational Perturbations. *N.V. Kulikova, E.N. Petrovskaya, V.M. Chepurova* 129

Orbital Stereoscopic Observatory.M.S. Chubey...... 138

Methodological Aspects of Prior Estimation of Positional Accuracy Trough the Differential GLONASS/ GPS Subsystem during the Landing Phase of an Aircraft.*S.G. Bystrakov, Yu.A. Solovyov, D.A. Ustyuzhanin* 148

Evaluation of the Influence of Navigation and Ballistic Errors on the Quality of Radar Images.K.A. Zanin 160

Space-Time periodicity and Symmetry of Radio-Navigation Field’s Precision Characteristics of Space Navigation System GLONASS.*E.I. Ignatovich,A.I. Serdyukov , A.F. Shchekutyev* 168

Comparison of Some Methodological Approaches to Forecasting Constellation Status of the Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS.V.D. Glotov, V.V. Yanishevsky 179

On Construction of a Distributed Data Acquisition Subsystem in Heterogeneous Computing Environment for the Chief Information-Analytical Center of Automated Warning System of Hazardous Situations in the Near-Earth Space. A.N. Derstuganov, V.G. Lavrentyev 186

Ensuring the Safety of a Spacecraft Crew during the Flight Management.V.E. Lyubinsky, V.A. Solovyov 195

The 100th Anniversary of A. G. Pilyutik – a Talented Organizer with Extraordinary and Vivid Personality.L.V. Dokuchaev, N.Ya. Dorozhkin 202

**Comprehensive ballistic analysis of high precision descent control of a prospective manned spacecraft in the Earth’s atmosphere.**

** S.I. Kudryavtsev.**

The development of onboard algorithm complex to control the descent of a prospective slide-type manned spacecraft designed for soft landing on small-sized ranges on Russian territory, the necessity of a combined descent control system and a brief description of the applied mathematical models are under consideration. The article describes optimality criteria of the descent control, the choice of maximizing criterion in the maneuver area by the time radio communication with navigation satellites is restored, gives a brief description of the proposed terminal guidance algorithm during the final phase of the descent, and examines possible accuracy characteristics of the control system during the descent from the lunar orbit.

Key words: descent on the Russian territory, combined control system, satellite navigation.

**Analysis of the Dynamics of Simulation Landing of a Full-Sized Lander Replica on the Lunar surface.**

**V. V. Malyshev, A. V. Starkov, M. A. Titkov. **

Results of computer modelling of a spacecraft’s soft landing on the lunar surface and its simulated landing on a rotational testbed in earthly conditions, including comparative analysis of the obtained data in accordance to which the configuration of recording equipment on the lander is set.

Key words: spacecraft, landing dynamics, soft landing, simulation landing, lander replica, recording equipment.

**Ballistic Development of Return Trajectory of a Spacecraft Aimed at Providing Direct High-Precision Landing at VostochnyCosmodrome.**

**V.I. Mironov, V.G. Sobolevsky.**

Research results on ballistic development of spacecrafts’ return trajectory aimed at providing direct high-precision landing at VostochnyCosmodrome. A new approach to solving the given task with the use of the following types of vehicles is under discussion: a manned spacecraft as a part of prospective piloted transport system to perform a descent from an elliptical orbit of return during the final phase of the Earth-Moon Expedition; a small-sized automatic spacecraft to perform a descent from a high-apogee orbit of an artificial Earth satellite. A new qualitative fidelity (feasibility) criterion of the angular position of a spacecraft’s return orbit’s aspidal line, meaning that φвх latitude of a spacecraft’s entry point into the atmosphere should be less (in modulo) than the latitude of a required landing area.

Key words:spacecraft, entry body, moonship, small-sized spacecraft, high-apogee elliptic orbit, aspidal line of a spacecraft’s elliptic flight path, latitude of a spacecraft’s entry point into the Earth’s atmosphere, latitude of an entry probe’s landing area, direct high-precision landing of a spacecraft, VostochnyCosmodrome.

**Advantages of the Moon Capture Orbit in Forming the Orbit of its Artificial Satellite.**

** V.N. Borovenko.**

Results of calculations of near-Earth lunar rendezvous orbits to allow a spacecraft entering the Moon’s activity sphere to be captured and eventually become its artificial satellite are under discussion. The class of Earth’s artificial satellite orbits that fulfill the necessary condition for the spacecraft to be captured by the Moon, i.e. the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Moon should be less than the local parabolic velocity. Within the framework of the finite circularthree-body task, a configuration analysis of the capture orbits, the residence time ofthe spacecraft near the Moon, injection schemes of the spacecraft while entering the orbit of the Moon’s artificial satellite, and other parameters are described in the article. Comparison between the required characteristic velocity during the use of capture orbits, as well as within the traditionaltwo-pulse injection scenario is also under discussion.

Key words: moon, orbit, three-body task, the Moon’s capture orbit.

**An Analysis of Optimal Maneuvers of Acceleration and Deceleration for Space Flight to Moon.**

** E.S. Gordienko, V.V. Ivashkin, V. Lu.**

The analysis of some optimization methods for active trajectories parts of acceleration and deceleration for the problem of the spacecraft flight to the Moon is presented in the paper. A case of one-impulse maneuver in the central Newtonian gravitational field of the Earth or the Moon is considered. A value of the thrust is constant in the analysis, and the orientation of the thrust is optimized maximizing the final mass of the spacecraft. For the geocentric acceleration, a transfer from the initial circular orbit of the artificial satellite of the Earth is performed to the final orbit with the given value of semi-major axis. For the selenocentric deceleration, a transfer from a hyperbolic orbit with the given vector of velocity “at infinity” is performed to the final circular orbit of the artificial satellite of the Moon. Two methods of optimization are analyzed in the paper: on the base of Pontryagin’s maximum principle (PMP), and in the frame of two-parameter optimization for a linear control law, with the help of Powell’s quasi-Newton method, in particular. Numerical analysis is performed for rockets «Soyuz» and «Proton» with «Fregat» and «DM» upper stages. The mass-energy as well as the time and geometric characteristics of the maneuvers are defined in the paper. Then, the optimization results are used to obtain the spacecraft trajectories for the flight from the Earth to the Moon with both maneuvers in the real gravitational field of the Earth, Moon and Sun.

Key words: spacecraft, lunar trajectories, optimal acceleration, optimal deceleration, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum, Powell’s quasi-Newton method.

**Development of the Program of Controlling the Orbital Motion of the International Space Station.**

**E. K. Melnikov, N. S. Roslyakova, A. I. Smirnov.**

Basic principles of controlling the orbital movement of the ISS during the assembly process and upon its further operating. Different approaches to solving the task of controlling the orbital motion of the ISS at different opeational phases.

Key words: ISS, ballistic and navigation support, control of orbital motion, forecasting interval, orbit maintenance, solar activity, divisile orbits.

**Synchronous Launch of Spacecrafts in the Context of a Double-Launch Flight Pattern to the Moon.**

R. F. Murtazin

The necessity of solving tasks related to «lunar programs». A spacecraft’s single-launch flight pattern to the moon as the most feasible one and a double-launch scheme which might allowto significantly reducethe requirements for dimensions of launchers. Disadvantages of the both schemes. As an alternative, a synchronous launch of two spacecrafts is suggested to allow their fast docking. A difference in the orbital inclination of the spacecrafts is proved to allow to significantly reduce the value of additional lateral momentum for coordinating the orbit planes during the implementation of the synchronous launch scheme.

Key words: spacecraft, flight to the Moon, double-launch scheme, fast navigation geometry.

**Providing hardware and mathematical software for the study of the Earth’s surface onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station under the program «Hurricane».**

**M.Yu. Belyaev, L.V. Desinov, D.Yu. Karavayev, E.E. Sarmin, O.A. Yurina.**

Research results achieved under the program «Hurricane» studying the Earth’s surface onboard the Russian segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS). Information on the filming and spectral facilities used by astronauts. Descriptions of mathematical software produced for planning observations and processing the obtained results that is used by astronauts onboard the RS of the ISS and MCC experts at FSUE TsNIIMash.

Key words: ISS, digital cameras, spectrometric equipment, image processing.

**TheStudyofCatastrophicEvents That May LeadtoEnvironmentalChallengesunder the Program «Hurricane» Onboard the RussianSegment of the International Space Station.**

M. Yu. Belyaev, L.V. Desinov, D.Yu. Karavayev, E.E. Sarmin, O.A. Yurina.

Basic research directions of the «Hurricane» program, results of studies of terrestrial surface onboard the RussianSegment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS).

Key words: ISS, space experiment (SE), Earth exploration, catastrophic events, volcanic spectrometry.

Determiningthe Attitude oftheOrbitalStationUsing theDatafrom the OnboardComputerComplex.

A. M. Titov.

An algorithm to solve the task of determining the attitude of the orbital station in real time relatingtotheabsoluteinertial reference using thedatafromtheonboardcomputercomplex (OCC). Statistical properties of evaluations obtained on the basis of the attitude determination accuracy criteria.

Key words: measurementsofmagnetometerandsolarsensor (SS), single and double vector measurement systems, orientation quaternions, the Fisher information matrix, space vehicle’s attitude determination accuracy criteria.

Spectral Analysis of Telemetry Processes.

N.V. Matveyev.

An algorithm for calculating the power spectral density of telemetry parameters on the basis of calculating the maximum of likelihood function of autoregressive model of a randomstationary process. Formulas for calculatingthe values of a likelihood function and its derivatives usingthe numerical optimization method.

Key words: power spectral density, likelihood function, autoregressive model of a randomstationary process, telemetry parameters.

Temporal Variations of Geopotential Coefficients in the Structure of Numerical-Analytical Models of the Earth Rotation Parameters.

S.S. Krylov, Yu.G. Markov, A.S. Philippova.

Data on the research of the numerical-analytical model of the oscillating movement of the terrestrial pole with provision for temporal variations of geopotential coefficients. On the basis of the obtained results of interpolation and polar fluctuations it is shown that joint modeling of dynamic processes allows to specify the analytical model and improve the forecast of the polar movement trajectory. The results of numerical modeling of the terrestrial pole fluctuations in comparison with observations and measurements of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS).

Key words: the Earth rotation parameters, terrestrial pole fluctuations, geopotential, geopotential coefficients, Chandler wobble.

Modelling of the Oscillatory Motion of the Terrestrial Pole during Significant Abnormalities.

V.V. Perepyolkin, V.N. Pochukaev, G.P. Sachkov.

Precision characteristics of the numerical-analytical model of multi-frequency vibrational motion of the terrestrial pole which allows to take account of the effects of temporal variations of geopotential coefficients and improve the accuracy of forecasting the terrestrial pole movement during significant abnormalities (irregular deviations). The aforementioned model is an improved version of the basic model of the terrestrial pole's vibrational motion (Chandler and annual components) which uses methods of celestial mechanics based on the data obtained during observations of the terrestrial gravitational field. Fundamental aspects are described to give possible qualitative explanation of the observed irregular phenomena during the Earth's pole oscillatory process.

Key words: oscillations of the terrestrial pole, geopotential, Chandler frequency, forecast.

Effects of Elastic Deformations on the Translational and Rotational Motion of a Body in the Central Gravitational Field of Forces.

Yu. G. Markov, I. V. Skorobogatykh, Do Chung Bo.

Research results of the effects related to the slackness – variability of the inertia tensor. Relation of translational and rotational motion of an object and, as a result, the possibility of influencing on the precision characteristics of its movement. Great practical significance of solving such problems is also highlighted in the article.

Key words: viscoelastic ball, small deformations, Kelvin – Voigt model, Routh equations, Delaunay variables, Andoyer variables, orbit evolution.

The Concept and Possible Scenario of a Demonstration Flight to the Potentially Dangerous 2001 JV1 Asteroid with the Aim of Changing its Orbit by an Artificial Explosion.

T.I. Afanasyeva, Yu.F. Kolyuka, V.G. Lavrentyev, Yu.M. Lipnitsky, S.A. Meshcheryakov, A.M. Chervonov.

Ways of finding possible countermeasures against asteroid and comet hazards through the use of space technology and existing nuclear capacity. Basic provisions of the proposed concept, among which a scenario of a spacecraft flight carrying nuclear warheads towards one of potentially dangerous asteroids – 2001 JV1 – with the aim of demonstrating capabilities of changing the orbits of such objects by an artificial explosion nearby in order to reject them from the Earth at a safe distance. Goals and objectives of a demonstration flight, as well as imposed requirements, information about the selected target asteroid and other initial data necessary for designing the flight scheme of a spacecraft within this program are described in the article.

Key words: potentially dangerous space object (PDO), asteroid, spacecraft, nuclear warhead, orbit, the minimum distance between orbits, demonstration flight, flight scheme of a spacecraft.

Designing a Ballistic Flight Scheme of a Spacecraft and Conducting Trajectory Observations to Solve the Task of Demonstration Flights to the 2001JV1 Asteroid.

T.I. Afanasyeva, Yu.F. Kolyuka.

Possible solutions of tasks related to finding countermeasures against asteroid and comet hazards with the help of means of space technology. Results of ballistic and design research related to developing flight schemes of a spacecraft and navigation supportduring the space mission towards the potentially dangerous 2001JV1 asteroid with the aim of changing its orbit by conducting a nuclear explosion nearby. The article notes the suggested schemes can provide the required conditions for conducting the flight, providing the spacecraft’s convergence with the asteroid, achieving maximum effect in changing the asteroid’s orbit by conducting a nearby explosion, carrying out quantitative evaluations of the blast effect throughout the duration of the flight program.

Key words: potentially dangerous space object (PDO), spacecraft, ballistic scheme, orbit, corrective thrust, power expenses, onboard navigation, terms of performance of the flight program.

Short-Period Cometsand the Earth:Gravitational Perturbations.

N.V. Kulikova,E.N. Petrovskaya, V.M. Chepurova.

Variations of orbital elements of an object as a result ofgravitational perturbations consideringthe disturbance, caused by the Earth’s gravitational potential at the approach of a small body. Evolutionary model calculations of short-period cometswithan orbital period ofless than 7years, beginning from the date of their first observation up to the year 2100 (*Giacobini – Zinner, Pons – Winneke, Grigg – Skjellerup). *The article notes thatchanges in the datesof an object’s passage through the perihelion might be specifying factor of the time interval during the observations, as well as the basis for making perspectiveforecasts ofobject detectionin the future.

Key words: gravitational effect, computer technology, comets, meteoroids.

Orbital Stereoscopic Observatory.

M.S. Chubey.

Details of the «Orbital stereoscopicstellarobservatory» project presented at All-RussianAstronomicalConferences in 2010, 2012, 2013, etc. A scientific research program within the project and methodical ways of solving the tasks of the program indicating all possibleequipment are under discussion. Assessment of the accuracyand value ofthe expected results is given.

Key words: orbital projects, space stereoscope,asteroid andcomet hazard.

Methodological Aspects of Prior Estimation of Positional Accuracy Trough theDifferential GLONASS/ GPS Subsystem during the Landing Phase of an Aircraft.

S.G. Bystrakov, Yu.A. Solovyov, D.A. Ustyuzhanin.

Methodological aspects of prior estimation of positional accuracy trough the differential GLONASS/ GPS subsystem during the landing phase of an aircraft are under discussion. The assessment is carried out in accordance with the results of modeling the motion of navigational spacecrafts and calculations of the corresponding precision characteristics, taking into account the levels of residual errors in the determination of pseudo ranges, presented in materials by International Civil Aviation Organization and others.