Chapter 12- Motivation and Hunger
What Motivates Us?
- A need for homeostasis-
- Drive Reduction Theory-
- Incentives ( intrinsic v extrinsic)
- Theory of Optimal Arousal-
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs- fill in chart
What does it mean to be self- actualized?
Chapter 12- Motivation and Work
7. Motivation- The need to Achieve-
1. Intrinsic v Extrinsic- what’s the difference?
2. Achievement Motivation- page 491-
8. The Art of Motivating People-
- Industrial- Organizational Psychology-
- Personnel Psychology-
- Organizational Psychology-
- Task Leadership vs. Social Leadership-
- Theory Y vs. Theory X
Why am I So Hungry?
- Physiological reasons for hunger- know the Walter Cannon Study
- Chemicals are unbalanced- How do the following influence hunger?
- Neurotransmitters are unbalanced- Know how they influence hunger.
- Hypothalamus – know how they each influence hunger.
- Lateral Hypothalamus
- Ventromedial Hypothalamus
- Hunger Hormones- How do the following influence hunger?
How does Hunger affect my life?
- Set Point-
- Basal Metabolic Rate ( Metabolism)-
- Memory and Hunger-
- Anorexia vs Bulimia
Chapter 12- Motivation and Sex
1. Major Researchers
- Alfred Kinsey-Know the study and why it is important.
- Masters and Johnson Sexual Response Cycle-
- Resolution and Refractory period-
2. Hormones and Sex- How do the following influence our sexual behaviors?
3. External Stimuli and Sexual Motivation-
a. Julia Heiman Study-
b. How do men and women compare in terms of sexual motivation?
4. Sexual Disorders-
- Premature Ejaculation-
- Orgasmic Disorder-
5. Why do Teens get Pregnant?
6. What “causes” homosexuality?
- Nature Supported-
- Nurture Supported-
1. / Which of the following is clearly not an example of an incentive?
A) / $1000 / D) / smell of popcorn
B) / threat of punishment / E) / lack of bodily fluids
C) / electric shock
2. / Motivation is defined by psychologists as:
A) / an impulse to accomplish something of significance.
B) / rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.
C) / a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
D) / the cause of behavior.
3. / The set point is:
A) / the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm.
B) / the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.
C) / the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal.
D) / the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
4. / The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:
A) / refractory periods. / D) / boredom.
B) / sexual disorders. / E) / anorexia nervosa.
C) / hunger.
5. / The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:
A) / self-esteem. / D) / food and drink.
B) / love and friendship. / E) / achievement.
C) / religious fulfillment.
- With regard to the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among Americans during the 1940s, Alfred Kinsey found that:
A) / nearly all men and most women reported having premarital sexual intercourse.
B) / most men and nearly half the women reported having premarital sexual intercourse.
C) / most men but very few women reported having premarital sexual intercourse.
D) / very few individuals of either sex admitted having premarital sexual intercourse.
- Increases in ______increase hunger, whereas increases in ______decrease hunger.
A) / insulin; blood glucose / C) / leptin; orexin
B) / blood glucose; leptin / D) / orexin; insulin
- If researchers wanted to improve upon the scientific accuracy of Alfred Kinsey's research on American sexual practices, their first concern should involve:
A) / using telephone rather than face-to-face interviews.
B) / interviewing a larger number of people.
C) / having females rather than males interview the female respondents.
D) / interviewing a more representative sample of the American population.
- The brain structure that detects sex hormone levels and activates sexual arousal is the:
A) cerebellum. B) amygdala. C) hypothalamus. D) medulla. E) thalamus.
10. / For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:
A) / homeostasis. / D) / the refractory period.
B) / a drive. / E) / metabolic rate.
C) / an instinct.
11. Mice are most likely to eat less when they experience ______levels of ______.
A) elevated; leptin B) reduced; glucose C) elevated; orexin D) reduced; ghrelin
12. / When an organism's weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):
A) / decrease in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
B) / increase in hunger and a decrease in basal metabolic rate.
C) / decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.
D) / increase in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
13. / Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that:
A) / homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been sexually abused during childhood.
B) / homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been overprotected by their mothers.
C) / homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been raised in a father-absent home.
D) / homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been exposed to a gay or lesbian schoolteacher.
E) / the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.
14. About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from:
A) / excess leptin. / D) / hypermetabolism.
B) / an abnormally low set point. / E) / anorexia nervosa.
C) / bulimia nervosa.
15. Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who:
A) / have physically or sexually abused their children.
B) / are high-achieving and protective.
C) / have been recently separated or divorced.
D) / are unconcerned about physical appearance and body weight.
16. / Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to:
A) / frequently monitor individual employees in order to make sure they are working.
B) / discourage employees from critically discussing controversial company policies.
C) / give employees a high degree of responsibility for developing their own work procedures.
D) / remind employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects.
17. / Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology's principles to the workplace?
A) / social psychology / D) / developmental psychology
B) / personality psychology / E) / industrial-organizational psychology
C) / cognitive psychology
18. / Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to:
A) / social psychology. / D) / human factors psychology.
B) / clinical psychology. / E) / personnel psychology.
C) / organizational psychology.
19. / After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of:
A) / a hierarchy of motives. / D) / 360-degree feedback.
B) / erotic plasticity. / E) / flow.
C) / achievement motivation.
20. / Participative management is to ______as directive management is to ______.
A) / leniency errors, halo errors
B) / Theory Y; Theory X
C) / task leadership; social leadership
D) / unstructured interviews; structured interviews
21. Dr. Thompson is involved in scripting interview questions that will effectively predict job applicants' success in specific work positions. Her work best illustrates that of a(n) ______psychologist.
A) personnel B) organizational C) human factors D) clinical
22. / According to Maslow, our need for ______must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ______.
A) / love; food / D) / self-actualization; friendship
B) / adequate clothing; self-esteem / E) / political freedom; economic security
C) / religious fulfillment; adequate housing
23. / Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat. This procedure is likely to:
A) / cause the rat to begin eating.
B) / decrease the rat's basal metabolic rate.
C) / facilitate conversion of the rat's blood glucose to fat.
D) / permanently lower the rat's set point.