Biology Mid-Term Review Sheet

Biology Mid-Term Review Sheet

Biology Mid-Term Review Sheet

2016-2017

I will take my Biology Mid-Term Exam on: ______

Part One: Vocabulary

For each of the following vocabulary terms, write a definition or description in your own words, and describe or draw at least one example of each.

Vocabulary Word / Definition/Describe / Examples
(Describe or Draw)
Scientific Method
  1. Hypothesis

  1. Theory

  1. Independent Variable

  1. Dependent Variable

  1. Control

Properties of Water
  1. Element

  1. Compound

  1. Cohesion

  1. Adhesion

  1. Surface Tension

Molecules of Life (Biomolecules)
  1. Carbohydrates

  1. Lipids

  1. Proteins

  1. Nucleic Acids

  1. Monomer

  1. Polymer

Characteristics and Origin of Life
  1. Endosymbiosis

  1. Stimulus (Stimuli)

  1. Metabolism

  1. Homeostasis

Cell Theory
  1. Prokaryote

  1. Eukaryote

  1. Cells

Cell Organelles
  1. Organelle

  1. Nucleus

  1. Mitochondria

  1. Chloroplasts

  1. Cytoplasm

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Vacuole

  1. Ribosomes

Cell Membrane and Cell Transport
  1. Cell membrane

  1. Cell wall

  1. Passive transport

  1. Diffusion

  1. Osmosis

  1. Facilitated diffusion

  1. Active transport

  1. Equilibrium

Circulatory System
  1. Circulatory system

  1. Blood

  1. Heart

  1. Blood vessels

Excretory System
  1. Excretory system

  1. Filtration

  1. Reabsorption

  1. Excretion

Nervous System
  1. Nervous system

  1. Neuron

  1. Reflex arc

Endocrine System
  1. Endocrine system

  1. Hormones

  1. Regulate

  1. Glands

Defending the Body Against Disease (Bacteria, Viruses, Immune System)
  1. Bacteria

  1. Virus

  1. Bacteriophage

  1. Inflammatory response

  1. Antibiotic

  1. Probiotic

  1. Pathogen

Photosynthesis
  1. Reactant

  1. Product

  1. Photosynthesis

  1. Autotroph

  1. Heterotroph

  1. ATP

Energy Transformations in Ecosystems
  1. Ecosystem

  1. Producer

  1. Consumer

  1. Decomposer

  1. Food chain

  1. Food web

  1. Trophic level

  1. Biomass

  1. Energy

  1. Energy pyramid

  1. Succession

  1. Stability

  1. Competition

Part Two: Concept Review

Complete the following or answer the question. Be specific and thorough.

Molecules of Life (Biomolecules):

  1. Circle the elements found in each of the four biomolecules below:
  2. Carbohydrates: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus
  3. Lipids: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus
  4. Proteins: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus
  5. Nucleic Acids: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus
  6. Label each of the following monomers with: the monomer name, and the polymer name.

Characteristics and Origin of Life:

  1. List the 7 characteristics shared by all living things. Put a * next to the characteristic(s) also shared with viruses.
  1. Describe the main idea of the Endosymbiosis Theory using the following terms:

mitochondria chloroplasts prokaryote eukaryote plants animals

Cell Theory:

  1. Compare and contrast a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell. You may draw a Venn diagram.

Cell Organelles:

  1. Compare and contrast a plant and an animal cell. You may draw a Venn diagram.

Cell Membrane and Cell Transport:

  1. What is the main component of the cell membrane? What is this component’s major function?
  1. Proteins are also found in the cell membrane. What is the major function of proteins here?
  1. What types of molecules move through diffusion?
  1. What types of molecules move through osmosis?

Excretory System:

  1. How does the excretory system help to maintain homeostasis?
  1. List three methods used by the body to excrete waste. For each, name the organs and body parts involved and describe how the waste is removed from the body.

Nervous System:

  1. What is the main function of the nervous system?
  1. Draw a sketch of a neuron (nerve cell) and label the following:

dendrite nucleus axonmyelin sheathaxon terminals

  1. What is the function of the myelin sheath?

Endocrine System:

  1. How does the endocrine system help to maintain homeostasis?
  1. What is a positive feedback mechanism? Describe an example of positive feedback.
  1. What is a negative feedback mechanism? Describe an example of negative feedback.
  1. Insulin levels are regulated by the endocrine system.
  2. What organ produces insulin in the human body?
  3. What does insulin do in the body?
  4. What disease is caused by decreased production of insulin?

Bacteria, Viruses, and Immune System:

  1. Why do most scientists consider viruses to be non-living?
  1. Describe what happens inside the body during the inflammatory response. Include specific names of chemicals and blood cells.
  1. Describe how bacteria can be beneficial to –
  2. Plants
  1. Animals (including humans)
  1. Compare/Contrast lytic and lysogenic cycle of viruses. Be sure to include the following: (a) how does the virus enter the cell? (b) what happens when the virus enters the cell? (c) what happens to the cell after the cycle is complete? (Feel free to draw a picture.)

Photosynthesis:

  1. What does the term “synthesis” mean?
  1. Give at least 3 examples of synthesis.
  1. In which part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?
  1. Review the equation for photosynthesis below. Describe what the equation means in complete sentences using the following terms in your explanation:

reactants products energy oxygen carbon dioxide chloroplast glucose water

Energy Transformations in Ecosystems:

  1. Food Chains:
  2. Draw a food chain that includes a producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer. Label all organisms in your food chain using these terms.
  1. Food Webs:
  2. Examine the food web below.

  1. Label each organism on the food web above using the following terms:

decomposersproducers primary consumer

secondary consumertertiary consumer

  1. Circle the level which stores the greatest amount of energy.
  1. Energy Pyramids:
  2. Examine the energy pyramid below.

style

  1. Draw an arrow to show the direction that energy moves in the pyramid.
  2. Color the level where the most energy is available green.
  3. Color the level where the least energy is available blue.
  4. What are these levels called?