Unit 11 Exam Animal Diversity Review
Explain in detail the body structure of an organism in the phylum Porifera. Be sure to include information regarding the following:
Symmetry, cell or tissue layers, presence of a coelom or not, as well as how they get their nutrients.
There are four classes of Cnidaria—Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Anthozoa, and Cubozoa. Suppose, while at the beach one day, you discover a new Cnidarian. You notice it is currently in the medusa stage, but appears to have a “float” or bag filled with gas to keep it near the surface of the water. You also notice it is able to retract its long tentacles into its body when touched, and appears to have a layer of algae symbiotically growing on it. Decide which class this new cnidarian should be placed in based on your initial observations and justify your answer with specific reasons. Also, describe what other research and further evidence could be obtained in order to accurately classify this organism.
The phyla Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, and Annelida all contain different kinds of “worms.” Describe the evolution of body structures starting with the more primitive Platyhelminthes and ending with the more advanced Annelida. Also, explain the importance of members of each phyla (this could be a positive importance or a negative importance).
What general characteristics would an organism need to possess in order to be placed in the phylum Mollusca? List the more specific characteristics an organism would need to be further placed in the Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda.
What are some of the general characteristics that all Arthropods share? List some of the evolutionary advances that this phylum shows. For example, what are some of the advances in the circulatory, nervous, respiratory, and excretory systems? List the specific characteristics of one of the following classes, as well as the names of some organisms found in the class:
Arachnida, Crustacea, or Insecta
Why are organisms in the phylum Echinodermata in the subgroup Bilateria when we usually see them having radial symmetry? How does an echinoderm use its water-vascular system? Of the classes Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea, and Cocentricycloidea, which is, in your opinion, least like the others? Justify your opinion with specific reasoning.
Of the subphyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and Vertebrata, what characteristics do they all share that classifies them under the phylum Chordata? What makes them different?
Which still extant class of fish shows the most evolutionary advancements? What are those advancements? Give names of specific organisms you would find in each of the 4 extant classes of fish.
There are many external as well as internal differences that separate amphibians from the lobe-finned fish. Without these adaptations amphibians would not have made it onto land. Describe four of those adaptations.
What evidence is there that suggests birds evolved directly from a type of reptile? What evidence is there that suggests mammals may have come from a retile-like ancestor? Describe 5 ways the classes of Retilia, Aves, and Mammalia are different from each other.