THE INTERNATIONAL SMALL GROUPS AND TREE PLANTING PROGRAMME (TIST)
ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT REPORT FOR TIST PROJECT ACTIVITIES
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NEMA)
Natural Resources Management &
Development Agency (NAREDA CONSULTANTS)
Mathai House, 1st Floor
P.O. Box 1001-10400
This Report presents the results of Environmental Audit for the Carbon Credit Programme which is being implemented through encouraging tree planting by the International Small Groups and Tree Planting Programme (TIST). The overall objective of the EA was to measure whether the project activities have any conceivable negative or positive consequences on the environment. The EA targeted the main components of TIST which are promotion of tree planting and conservation farming.
The study was conducted in Meru and Nanyuki Project Areas with the actual assessment/field work taking place between 18th and 26th November 2009. Groups and clusters that were sampled are presented in Appendix 2.
The Environment Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA), 1999, is the legislation that governs EIA studies. The second schedule of the Act lists the projects that are supposed to undergo EIA studies in accordance with section 58 (1-4) of the Act. The proposed project falls under dams, rivers and water resources as listed in the Second Schedule Part 4. EMCA 1999 makes it mandatory for any proponent of a project, “to, before financing, commencing, proceeding with, carrying out, executing or conducting or causing to be financed, commenced, proceeded with, carried out, executed or conducted by another person any undertaking specified in the second schedule in the Act, submit a project report to the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), in the prescribed form, giving the prescribed information, accompanied by the prescribed fee”.
Approach and Methodology for the EA
The EA was undertaken using three main approaches, which included: (i) desk study; (ii) field and site visits; and (iii) key informants and stakeholders’ interviews.
Positive and Negative Impacts of Program Activities
An environmental analysis of the proposed project unveiled several positive and negative impacts. The impacts identified were those that cut across program activities in the two project areas.
The tables below present the existing and potential positive impacts of the program activities
Existing Positive ImpactsProject Component / Positive Impacts
-Promotion of tree planting through carbon credit programmes and conservation farming
-Promotion of compost manure / Increased tree cover
Improved incomes at the household level through cash remuneration to groups and individual households based on the number of trees in farms
Reduction of global warming through increased sink for Green House Gases (GHG) hence a mitigation against sudden climate change
High potential forthe program activities to attract further/future carbon credit markets hence income generation.
Improved farming methods that prevent carbon dioxide (CO2) from escaping into the atmosphere while trees act as carbon sink.
Increased tree variety, hence wood based products.
Enhanced biodiversity hence increased ecosystem services such as pollination for food.
Improved opportunity to get rid of unsuitable trees for Agroforestry such as Eucalyptus spp through appropriate awareness creation activities
Contribution to the improvement of the catchment area of the larger Mt. Kenya and Aberdare ecosystems which are two of the five main water towers of this country.
Increased availability and access to tree products such as firewood and timber products.
Improved soil fertility and hence improved crop production through planting of nitrogen fixing shrubs and trees.
-Improved food security and nutritional status through increased crop production and growth of fruit trees as well as adoption of improved conservation farming (some farmers reported an increase of production from 2 to 3 bags to 8 from a quarter of farm after adopting conservation farming.
-Diversification of livelihood sources, i.e. training in beekeeping
Possible replication of the project activities in other areas following successful implementation.
Management of water catchment areas through promotion of tree planting.
Increase in groundwater recharge as a result of increase in vegetation cover that minimizes surface runoff and improves infiltration.
Increased tree-based environmental services such as moderation of local climate, reduced soil erosion and aesthetic values associated with trees
Potential Positive ImpactsProject Component / Positive Impacts.
Promotion of tree planting through carbon credit programmes / High potential of program activities to attract carbon markets.
Improved farming methods prevent carbon dioxide (CO2) from escaping into the atmosphere while trees act as carbon sink.
Possible replication of the project activities in other areas.
Increase in groundwater recharge as a result of increase in vegetation that minimizes surface runoff and improves nutrition.
Possible introduction of other nature based activities, like bee keeping due to increased foliage material, thus contributing to maintenance and enhancement of the biodiversity through pollination by bees
Increased population of native species through TIST’s PES programme
Conservation farming /
- Possible increased incomes as a result of improved farm productivity
- Possible improved food security
- Possible replication and adoption of conservation farming both within the project area (those farmers that are not group members) and outside the project area
- Improved farm productivity and environmental improvement through appropriate farming practices
- Possible reduced soil erosion as farmers increasingly adopt organic farming
The tables below present the existing and potential negative impacts of program activities
Existing Negative Impacts across the Project Areas and their Mitigation MeasuresProject Component / Negative Impacts. / Proposed Mitigation Measures
Promotion of tree planting through the carbon credit programme / -High expectations from farmers which TIST may not be able to meet or are outside its scope of coverage / -TIST to continue and improve awareness creation on TIST policies of support to specific activities through increasing seminars/ trainingaimed at developing best practices with and empowerment of TIST farmers.
-Conduct participatory techniques to identify farmers concerns and use these forums for feedback.
- Farmers’ dissatisfaction due to delayed payment / -Promptly implement the proposed M-PESA mode of payment already agreed upon with mobile phone services provider , Safaricom
-Improve awareness creation of TIST policies such as the 500 trees rules among group members and the fact that payment is made based on available man hours.
-Improve awareness on TIST’s policy/value of “low budget big results”
–Educate farmers that payments will increase once the GHG credit is initialized when farmers will receive 70% of the income after in country costs
Inadequate information dissemination of information between TIST staff and group members / -Streamline the information dissemination mechanisms between TIST staff at the project area level and those at the grassroots
-Ensure regular trainings of TIST grassroots staff to update them on the latest TIST policies
-Ensure regular and consistent meetings at the groups level
-Ensure adequate awareness creation among TIST grassroots staff and group members on TIST’s institutional structure
Poor awareness among farmers on how to join TIST activities leads them to believe that they have been excluded from TIST activities. / -Improve awareness creation on TIST policies in the registration of members
-Conduct participatory techniques to identify farmers concerns and use these forums as feedback forums.
Potential Negative Impacts across the Project Areas and their Mitigation MeasuresProject Component / Negative Impacts. / Proposed Mitigation Measures.
Promotion of tree planting / Possible negative changes in soil properties as litter becomes dominated by one or a few tree species and decomposition dynamics are altered. / -Encourage crop rotations that incorporate use of indigenous tree species.
-Interplant exotic with native tree species.
-Continue with the TIST campaign of encouraging the planting of more indigenous tree species
Promotion of conservation farming / Farmers’ resistant to retain chemical fertilizers and pesticides utilization for perceived high yields / -TIST promotes awareness on usefulness and benefits derived from organic fertilizers and pesticides.
Drawing from the positive and negative impacts as highlighted above, the former outweighs the latter by far, an observation clearly pinpointed by community, especially during the focused group discussions.
This EA has identified both positive and negative impacts as shown above. The mitigation measures, elaborated in the Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan are realistic and obtainable and it is strongly recommended that they be implemented while deliberate action is taken towards up scaling measures that TIST is already undertaking to improve the environmental integrity. The EMMP forms the basis for the formulation and implementation of an Integrated Environment, Health and Safety Policy that will be geared towards minimizing risks to the environment and human health and safety.
Based on the results of this EA, it is apparent that with the adoption and implementation of the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan, the adverse impacts will be adequately countered. In addition, foreseeable potential impacts will be forestalled before they occur thereby considerably limiting future environmental damage and ensuring the existence of a clean and healthy environment.
The Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan, which is the main output of this EA, provides the benchmark to be used in countering the negative impacts and forms a basis for monitoring and evaluating the overall environmental performance of the tree planting project. It is strongly recommended that TIST adopts and implements the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan. Accordingly, as per Part II, 10(2) of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003, we recommend that The International Small Groups Tree Planting Programme be issued with an Environmental Impact Assessment License for its Carbon Credit Tree Planting Programme.
THE INTERNATIONAL SMALL GROUPS TREE PLANTING PROGRAMME
Firm of Experts
I, Martin Kamau Gitau of NAREDA Consultants confirm that we have prepared the EIA Report for the International Small Groups Tree Planting Programme. I confirm that NAREDA Consultants is a licensed firm of consultants with the National Environmental Management Authority (No. 0005).
I, ______confirm that I have read the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and accept the findings and recommendations of the report. I accept the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan and will strive to fulfill its obligations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
LIST OF ACRONYMS USED
1.1Background to TIST
1.2Brief on the Assessment
1.3.1The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act, 1999
1.3.2 The National Environment Action Plan (NEAP)
1.3.3Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations 2006
1.3.4Sessional Paper No. 6 of 1999 on Environment and Development
1.3.5Water Policy- Sessional Paper No.1 of 1999
1.3.6Water Policy and Water Act 2002
1.3.7 Water Management Rules 2007
1.3.8 Forest Act 2005
1.3.9 The Lakes and Rivers Act, CAP 409
1.3.10The Agriculture Act Cap 318
1.3.11Public Health Act (Cap 242)
1.4Relevant National Policies
1.4.1Kenya Vision 2030
1.4.2 The National Poverty Eradication Plan (NAPEP) and the Poverty Reduction Strategies Paper (PRSP).
1.5USAID’s Environmental Procedures
2.0EA APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
Scope of Work
2.2.1Desk Study and Preparatory Tasks
2.2.2Field and Site Visits
2.4The EA Process
2.5 Limitations of the Study
2.6The EA Team
3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE BIOPHYSICAL AND HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS OF PROGRAM AREAS
3.1Nanyuki Project Area
3.1.3Geology and Soils
3.1.4 Drainage System and the Hydrogeology
3.2Meru Project Area
3.2.3Geology and Soils
4.0DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
4.1Introduction to TIST
4.2The Goals of TIST Programme:
4.3Program Implementation Approach
4.6.1Small Group Development Component
4.6.2Conservation Farming Component
4.6.4Payments to Groups
4.7TIST Data - Monitoring & Measurement
4.8Linkages and Partnerships with External Institutions
5.0SOCIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PROGRAM BENEFICIARIES
5.5Households Energy Situation
5.6Assessment of Tree Planting Practices
5.6.1Average Number of Trees Existing on Farms
5.6.2Challenges Associated with Tree Planting Activities
5.7 Community Perception of TIST and its Activities
5.7.1Knowledge of TIST and Membership
5.7.2TIST’s Activities and Respondents’ Participation
5.8Respondents’ Perception on the Impacts of TIST’s Activities
5.8.1Benefits from TIST Activities
5.8.2Negative Impacts of TIST Activities and their Mitigation Measures
6.0IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS
6.1Identification and Analysis of Impacts
6.4Discussion of Impacts
7.0MITIGATION MEASURES FOR NEGATIVE IMPACTS
8.0ENVIRONMENTAL MANGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN
9.0DECOMMISSIONING/PHASE OUT STRATEGY
9.1Transfer of Management or Donation of the Project as a Going Concern
9.2Transfer or Donation of the Project for a Different Use
9.2Abandonment of the Project
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Leopold’s Matrix of Impacts Analysis
Appendix 2: An Exhaustive List of the Sampled Groups and the Respective Villages
Appendix 3:Focused Group Discussions with Group Members
Appendix 4: Type of Trees/ species Planted on the farm, number planted and Average Age
Appendix 5: Ranking of tree species by Average Number of Trees planted Per Household
Appendix 6: A Summary of the Uses/Value/Importance from the Two Project Areas per Species
Appendix 7: List of Respondents/ Contacted Persons
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
List of Figures
Fig. 1: Agroclimatic Zones of the Ewaso Ng’iro Basin...... 16
Figure 2: The five main components of the TIST...... 23
Figure 3: Educatution Status of the Respondents...... 30
Figure 4: Challenges Encountered in sourcing Fuelwood...... 34
Figure 5: Challenges related to tree planting...... 37
List of Tables
Table 1: Sample Size for the Old and New Groups...... 10
Table 2: Distribution of respondents by Gender and the Project Areas...... 29
Table 3: Age Distribution of Household Respondents...... 29
Table 4: Marital Status of Households Sampled...... 29
Table 5: Occupational Status...... 30
Table 6 Common Crop Production Constraints in the TIST Progarmme Area...... 31
Table 7: Common Livestock Production Problems in Meru and Nanyuki Project Areas 32
Table 8: A Summary of Fuel Used...... 33
Table 9: Alternative Sources of Energy as Reported by the Households...... 33
Table 10: Benefits Associated with TIST Interventions...... 39
Table 11: Negative Impacts of TIST Activities and Proposed Mitigation Measures..39
Table 12: Impacts Significance Table for Existing Impacts...... 42
Results of Impacts Analysis...... 44
Table 13: Existing Positive Impacts of Program Activities...... 44
Table 14: Potential Positive Impacts of Program Activities...... 45
Table 15: Existing Negative Impacts of Program Activities...... 45
Table 16: Potential Negative Impacts across the Project Areas and their Mitigation Measures 45
Table 17: Mitigation Measures for Existing Negative Impacts...... 51
Table 18: Mitigation Measures for Potential Negative Impacts...... 52
Table 19: Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan for Existing Negative Impacts 54
Table 20: Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan for Potential Negative Impacts See executive summary 55
LIST OF ACRONYMS USED
CBNRMCommunity Based Natural Resources Management
DDP District Development Plan
EIAEnvironmental Impact Assessment
EMMPEnvironmental Management and Monitoring Plan
EMCA Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act
FGDFocused Group Discussions
KEFRIKenya Forestry Research Institute
M&EMonitoring and Evaluation
MoAMinistry of Agriculture
NAREDANatural Resources Management and Development Agency
NEMA National Environment Management Authority
NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations
OD Organizational Development
TISTThe International Small Groups and Tree Planting Programme
ToRTerms of Reference
ToTsTraining of Trainers
USAIDUnited States Agency for International Development
1.1Background to TIST
1The International Small Group and Tree Planting Program, or TIST, is a comprehensive sustainable development program for developing-world locations. TIST is a Non-Governmental Organization that was formed in 1999 in Mpwapwa, Tanzania. An initiative began to organize the members of an Anglican Diocese into self-supporting, cooperative Small Groups. These groups would empower the community toward helping themselves, strengthen the church, empower the lay people, and reduce the load on his clergy. These groups would become resources for each other and work toward sustaining life for members.
In Kenya, the programme is active in two project areas namely Meru and Nanyuki. Each project area contains several group centers which; these are usually key local villages. The group centers in Nanyuki include; Laikipia West, Lamuria, Naro Moru, Nyahururu and Wiumiririe. These group centers serve 1858 groups and mainly plantEucalyptus spp, Greavielleia robusta, Cyprus (Cupressus yprussp), Bottle Brush (Callistemon sp), Casuarina sp, Croton Megalocarpusupus, Acacia spp, Red Cedar (Juniperus procera), Pine (Pinus sp) & Avacado (Persea sp) among other tree spices.There are 4909 groups in Meru with centers at Chugu, Igembe, Imenti North, Kinyaritha, Kirimaara, Kirinyaga, Kithurine, Ntugi, Tharaka, Timau and Wendo. The Tree species grown in Meru region are quite similar to those grown in Nanyuki region.
1.2Brief on the Assessment
This assignment was to carry out Environmental Audit (EA) of the TIST programme. The overall objective of the EA was to measure whether the programme is having any conceivable negative or positive consequences on both biophysical and human (socio-economic and cultural) environments.The results of the Audit which are contained in this EA Report will be used in planning of future phases and additional projects and also form a basis for monitoring and follow up of programme performance. The EA targeted the main components of the TIST which are tree planting and conservation farming. The assessment took place between 18thNovember and 2nd December 2009.
Legislation of direct relevance to this study include:
1.3.1The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act, 1999
The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act, 1999 (EMCA) aims to ensure successful environmental management in Kenya using four main principles:
- The sustainability of the environment and natural resources;
- The precautionary principle (the principle that where there are threats of damage to the environment, whether serious or irreversible, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation)
- The integration of environmental considerations into development planning and management;
- The encouragement of public participation in any environmental decision-making.
The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) is the governing body which oversees the application of these principles. EMCA makes provision for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be carried out before permission for any development out of character with its surroundings is granted. Audits must be carried out as per the Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003, developed to support EMCA.