The Effect of Exercise on the Human Body

The Effect of Exercise on the Human Body

The Effect of Exercise on the Human Body


Students will:

  • Identify conditions that need to stay constant to keep the body in equilibrium.
  • Describe how organisms maintain stable internal while living in changing external environments


Jump rope/skipping rope thermometer


Cotton balls


The body has ways of adjusting to different conditions. Keeping conditions such as body temperature constant is called equilibrium (homeostasis). Equilibrium occurs when a system is balanced. How exercise affects some of these factors can be determined by measuring and observing certain conditions of the human body. Some of these conditions are:

  • Change in skin color on arms and face
  • Perspiration level
  • External body temperature
  • Breathing rate
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure (optional)


Part 1: Before you begin exercise:

  1. Working in groups of 3 or 4, select a student that will be able to jump rope and will be able to maintain jumping for 8 minutes. The group member jumping will stop just long enough for the needed measurements and observations to be collected.
  2. Record the resting observations and values of the person jumping rope using the following:
  3. Skin color of hands face (pale, pink, red)
  4. Perspiration level (none, mild, medium, high)
  5. External body temperature (place the thermometer under the subject’s arm pit for 1 minute; the thermometer should be directly against the skin)
  6. Breathing rate (count the number of breaths in 1 minute)
  7. Heart rate (find the pulse at the wrist and count the number of beats in 1 minute).

Part 2: Exercise

  1. Make observations and measurements of the person jumping rope while they are sitting down and resting
  2. The student jumping rope should begin jumping rope when the person with the stopwatch gives the signal and continue jumping for 2 minutes quickly make observations and measurements and record them on the data table.
  3. The student will continue jumping rope at 2 minute intervals until the 8 minute time period had been completed. After each 2 minute interval observations and measurements should be made.
  4. When the 8 minutes is up, the student jumping rope will rest for 1 minute, observations and measurements will be taken for the final time. Don’t forget to record the data on the data table.
  5. Clean the thermometer with alcohol and return it and all other lab materials to the designated area.
  6. Make a separate graph for each of the following
  7. External Body Temperature at Various Intervals of Exercise
  8. Breathing Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise
  9. Heart Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise
  10. Answer the questions in the conclusion section to describe and explain the results of the lab.

Hypothesis “If__, then___” form


Observations and Measurements During Various Intervals of Exercise

Time intervals / Body Color / Perspiration Level / Body Temperature
(◦C) / Heart Rate
Rest (2 minutes)
4 minutes
6 minutes
8 minutes
10 minutes
Rest (1minute) After Exercise

Analysis Questions

  1. Describe the changes in body color and perspiration that you observed. What caused these changes?
  1. How do these changes help the body stay at equilibrium (homeostasis)?
  1. Why do you think body temperature changes in response to exercise?
  1. How does your body keep (maintain) a constant temperature?
  1. What might happen if your body lost the ability to sweat?

6. The formula for respiration is below:

C6H12O6 + 6O26CO2 + 6H2O

Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water

How can you explain the increase in breathing rate and the increase in blood flow based on this formula?

7. Juan took his body temperature before he exercised. He performed exercise and continued to monitor body temperature throughout the 12 minutes of exercise. Based on the graph above, what will his temperature be at 15 minutes?

Conclusion Paragraph

Write a paragraph including the following sentences.:

a. Restate the hypothesis

b. Explains whether or not your data supported your hypothesis.

c. Explain how the body systems work together to perform exercise.

d. Explain how the body systems work together to maintain equilibrium.

e. Describe what you learned in terms of equilibrium in the lab.