Study Guide – Unit II: History of SWA---
- Be able to explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
- Artificial political borders- New borders for countries, created by France or Great Britain, with no regard to ethnic borders.
- Partition- to break up or divide
- Countries involved?France & Great Britain
- Reasons for the breakup? Lost WWI (Ottoman’s sided with Germany)
- What happened to the territory after the break up?Partitioned by France and Great Britain.
- How does this lead to conflict?
Artificial Political boundaries/borders were not based on ethnic groups.
- Be able to explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in Europe.
- Zionism – the desire to create a Jewish homeland near Jerusalem
- Holocaust –the killing of 6 million Jews (and 5 million others) by Nazi Germany during WWII
- Anti-Semitism – Beliefs or actions that discriminate against Jewish people.
- What two groups claim the same homeland? Zionist Jews (Israelis) and Palestinians.
Why does each group believe they should have the land?
Israelis/Zionists / Ancient homeland before exile 2,000 years ago
Palestinians / Jewish people left and the Palestinians stayed.
- How does the Jewish religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in Europe effect the creation of Israel?
Holocaust and Anti-Semitism > they wanted a safe place from discrimination and hatred.
- Be able todescribe how land, water, resources, and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East.
Many Religions in a small area
Partitioning of Israel
Religion mixed with Government
Land around Jerusalem is sacred to all 3 religions / Land (water and oil too)
Not enough good land & water for all
Climate is harsh
Arable land is scarce
Water has to be treated before use due to Pollution
- Be able to explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
- Persian Gulf Conflict – Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq was defeated and Kuwait freed.
- Invasion of Afghanistan – U.S. removed Taliban government because they were protecting Al Qaeda.
- Invasion of Iraq – Saddam Hussein removed from power out of fear that he had WMD’s and would sell them to terrorists.
- Saddam Hussein – Dictator of Iraq (executed by new Iraqi Gov.)
- Osama bin Laden – Leader of Al Qaeda (killed by U.S. military May 2, 2011)
- Al-Qaeda– Extremist Islamic terrorist group responsible of 9/11.
- Taliban – Former Extremist Islamic government of Afghanistan that supports al-Qaeda .
Why would the US government want to remove the governments of Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11? To stop the support those governments were giving to terrorist groups.Persian Gulf conflict / invasion of Afghanistan / invasion of Iraq
Conflict also called / Operation Desert Storm / N/A / Operation Iraqi Freedom
Years fought / Aug. 1990- Feb. 1991 / 2001- currently still fighting / 2003-2010 combat troops still present in support roles
organization / Saddam Hussein
President George H.W. Bush / Taliban, Osama Bin Laden, Al Qaeda / Saddam Hussein, President George W. Bush
Causes of the conflict / Iraq invaded Kuwait to steal Kuwait’s’ oil supply. / The Taliban government in Afghanistan supported Bin Laden and Al Qaeda. The Taliban refused to turn over the terrorists to the U.S. military. / USA and Great Britain thought Saddam Hussein was hiding WMD’s and not being honest with UN weapons inspectors. France and Germany wanted to wait longer and did not agree with the U.S. led invasion.
Outcome of conflict / Iraq forced out of Kuwait by a large coalition of militaries, Iraq set fire to the Kuwaiti oil refineries and Saddam Hussein was left in power / Still working & fighting to set up a democratic government free from terrorism / Hussein was removed from power and a new democratic government took over Iraq.
Reasons for US involvement / U.S. is an ally of Kuwait and we needed to protect their oil reserves. / Stop Terrorism after 9/11- “War on Terrorism” / War on Terrorism
Thought Saddam Hussein had WMD’s and would give/sell them to terrorists to use.
** This is meant to be a study guide, not a list of everything on the test. Use your notebook to review for the test**