Similarity Between the Goals of Mao Zedong (China) and Emiliano Zapata (Mexico)

Similarity Between the Goals of Mao Zedong (China) and Emiliano Zapata (Mexico)

Similarity between the goals of Mao Zedong (China) and Emiliano Zapata (Mexico)

  • Mao Zedong was the communist leader of China – China became a communist nation in 1949 and was renamed the People’s Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong had gained the support of the Chinese peasants as a guerrilla leader by promising land reform and land redistribution – he lived and worked among the peasants
  • Emiliano Zapata was an Indian leader during the Mexican Revolution – although he was assassinated, he was a defender of the Indians and promised “Tierra y Libertad” or “Land and Freedom” – he would lead raids on rich haciendas (big farms) and redistribute land to the Indians – although he was not a communist, he did seek to improve the lives of the peasants through land redistribution – taking land from the rich and giving land to the poor
  • Thus, a major similarity between the goals of leaders of the Chinese Communist Revolution, such as Mao Zedong, and the goals of leaders of the Mexican Revolution, such as Emiliano Zapata, in the early twentieth centurywas support for redistribution of land to poor peasants
  • Even the first communist leader of a successful Marxist Revolution, Vladimir Lenin, promised “Bread, Peace, and Land” – land redistribution was a very desired goal of peasants

The Confucian Notion of the Dynastic Cycle

  • The Dynastic Cycle is the changing of the dynasties in China – due to the belief in the Mandate of Heaven (the right to rule) or that the dynasty receives the right to rule as long as it rules wisely and well but loses the Mandate of Heaven if floods, famines, epidemics, or too many wars occur
  • Zeng Guofan said in 1854, “In the past, at the end of the Han, Tang, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, bands of rebels were innumerable, all because of foolish rulers and misgovernment, so that none of these rebellions could be stamped out. But today [the emperor] is deeply concerned and examines his character in order to reform himself, worships Heaven, and is sympathetic to the people. He has not increased the land tax. . . . It does not require any great wisdom to see that sooner or later the [Taiping] bandits will all be destroyed.”
  • In this quote, it is clear that Zeng Guofan is saying that foolish leaders led to the success of rebellions and the collapse of dynasties
  • He is also saying that the Qing emperor is not foolish and is making good decisions by examining his character and reforming himself – therefore the Taiping Rebellion will be stopped
  • The quotation reveals how the Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion when a ruler is corrupt and incompetent

A Key Difference between the Ottoman Empire and the Tokugawa Shogunate

  • The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic Gunpowder Empire
  • The Tokugawa Shogunate was a Japanese Gunpowder Empire but the shogun controlled the gunpowder and had a monopoly on the gunpowder
  • However, there were many differences – the Ottomans were Muslim rulers and the Tokugawa shoguns were not – the Tokugawa shoguns had a centralized feudalism
  • More significantly, the Tokugawa shoguns isolated Japan and the Ottomans were actively engaged in trade with other regions
  • Therefore, one key difference between the Ottoman Empire and the Tokugawa Shogunate was thatthe Tokugawa Shogunate was less influenced by other cultures than the Ottoman Empire was – since the Tokugawa largely isolated Japan and were less affected by cultural diffusion

Ethnocentrism in the Middle Kingdom

  • Ethnocentrism is a belief in cultural superiority – it is the belief that one culture is superior to other cultures
  • Throughout much of their history, the Chinese were ethnocentric – as were most people – the Chinese believed that China was the “Middle Kingdom” – the center of the world
  • This ethnocentrism reflected in the term – Middle Kingdom – led to a belief that the outside world had nothing of value – nothing to offer
  • Yu Huan, a Chinese historian, said circa 250 C.E., “What is recorded in the Buddhist scriptures is analogous to the teachings contained in the scripture of Laozi [the founder of Daoism] in China, and it is actually believed that Laozi, after having gone to India, instructed the barbarians and became the Buddha.”
  • Yu Huan is saying that Buddhist texts were from Laozi, the Chinese philosopher credited with the founding of Daoism – that Buddhist ideas came from Laozi –that Laozi went to India and taught the barbarians in India and became the Buddha
  • In the fictionalized account of the origins of Buddhism outlined in the passage above, Yu Huan’s purpose was most likely toassert the superiority of Chinese culture over non-Chinese cultures

African Independence Movements after 1946

  • Most African colonies gained national independence
  • Decolonization or the movements to end European imperialism largely came after the end of World War II – as Europe was devastated from the conflicts and largely unable to address the needs of its colonies and needed to direct its energy to the rebuilding of Europe and as the British had fought against the imperial ambitions of Hitler, imperialism lost its credibility
  • Thus, the end of World War II marked the beginning of the independence movements in the colonies – it marked the beginning of decolonization
  • 1960 is often known as the “Year of Africa”
  • By the end of 1960, there were 27 independent nations in Africa, with 17 gaining their independence that year alone, as Britain, France, and Belgium all but dismantled their colonial empires in Africa

The Country that Experienced the Most Rapid Economic Growth during the Second World War

  • The United States was the country that experienced the most rapid economic growth during the Second World War
  • When World War II ended, the United States was in better economic condition than any other country in the world
  • Even the 300,000 combat deaths suffered by Americans paled in comparison to any other major belligerent
  • Building on the economic base left after the war, American society became more affluent in the postwar years than most Americans could have imagined in their wildest dreams before or during the war
  • The United States emerged as a superpower after World War II

Similarity – North and South American Independence Movements

  • The American Revolution was an independence movement – Americans sought independence from Britain and an end to colonialism and mercantilism
  • The South American Independence Movements sought an end to European rule
  • Both movements were influenced by the ideas of the European Enlightenment
  • Yes, the North and South American independence movements of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries shared revolutionary demands based onEnlightenment political ideas
  • Enlightenment philosophers like John Locke wrote of natural rights – the rights of all men to life, liberty and property – and consent of the governed or the idea that government’s power comes from the people and that the people give their consent or permission (through voting) to rulers to rule in the name of the people and for the well-being of the people

Christianity in Ethiopia

  • After the expansion of Islam into Africa, an organized Christian presence remained in Egypt and Ethiopia
  • The adoption of Christianity in Ethiopia dates to the fourth-century reign of the Axumite emperor Ezana
  • The kingdom of Axum was an African kingdom located along major international trade routes through the Red Sea between India and the Roman empire
  • Christianity afforded the possibility of unifying the many diverse ethnic and linguistic peoples of the kingdom of Axum, a goal of Ezana’s leadership
  • Axum was one of the earliest states to develop a coin system in order to service its sophisticated and prosperous economy – Emperor Ezana was the first world leader to put the cross on coins

Why – Chinese Government Stopped Voyages of Exploration

  • Zheng He was the great Chinese admiral and explorer who took seven major expeditions between 1405 and 1433
  • The voyages of Zheng He were sponsored by Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty
  • Yet within the emperor’s court, there was division – the Confucian scholar-gentry believed that the expeditions were a waste of resources as China was the Middle Kingdom and the outside world had nothing of value
  • But the eunuchs – like Zheng He – valued the expeditions and sought to establish Chinese supremacy in the Indian Ocean and establish tributary relationships with the kingdoms of the Indian Ocean region
  • Ultimately, on the death of Emperor Yongle, the expeditions were stopped
  • Zheng He’s fleet rotted in the harbor and his records were destroyed
  • The Chinese government’s concern with domestic concerns and frontier security led the Chinese government to stop the voyages of exploration in the Indian Ocean in the early fifteenth century
  • In the end, concern about nomadic invaders on the frontier and concerns within China allowed the Confucian scholar-gentry to win the court battle and the voyages were stopped

The Swahili Language

  • Swahili is a Bantu language with many Arabic words
  • Swahili has been greatly influenced by Arabic; there are an enormous number of Arabic loanwords in the language, including the word swahili, from Arabic sawāḥilī (a plural adjectival form of an Arabic word meaning “of the coast”)
  • The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries
  • Under Arab influence, Swahili originated as a lingua franca (a language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native languages are different) used by several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups
  • In the early 19th century, the spread of Swahili inland received a great impetus from its being the language of the Arab ivory and slave caravans, which penetrated as far north as Uganda and as far west as Congo
  • Swahili is a language that came into existence after 1000 as the direct result of expanding global trade patterns

Facts about the Mongol Empire

  • In the 1200s and 1300s, the Mongols – a nomadic peoples from the steppes of Central Asia – established the world’s largest contiguous empire
  • The Mongol Empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea and covered the entire expanse of the Silk Roads
  • The Mongols reestablished the Silk Road between East Asia and Europe – trade flourished on the Silk Roads as the Mongols protected the route and provided security
  • The Mongols were primarily interested in the collection of tribute and conquered China, Russia, and Persia
  • The Mongols were religiously tolerant and engaged in psychological warfare – they were skilled warriors on horseback – they possessed a skilled cavalry

What Marco Polo Saw in Kublai Khan’s Court – the Use of Paper Money

  • Marco Polo was a European merchant and traveler who visited the court of the great Mongol ruler of China – Kublai Khan
  • Marco Polo was amazed at the many advances in China – he was amazed at how advanced China was
  • He had not encountered many remarkable inventions and advances in Europe that he saw in China; he was particularly amazed at the use of paper money and coal and the practice of frequent bathing
  • Marco Polo (1254-1324) was a Venetian merchant believed to have journeyed across Asia at the height of the Mongol Empire
  • He first set out at age 17 with his father and uncle, traveling overland along what later became known as the Silk Road
  • Upon reaching China, Marco Polo entered the court of powerful Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan, who dispatched him on trips to help administer the realm
  • Marco Polo remained abroad for 24 years
  • Though not the first European to explore China – his father and uncle, among others, had already been there – he became famous for his travels thanks to a popular book he co-authored while languishing in a Genoese prison

Who Dominated Mediterranean Trade during the Sixteenth Century?

  • Italian city-states and the Ottoman Empireare the states that dominated the Mediterranean trade during the sixteenth century
  • This is not surprising – after all, the sixteenth century is the 1500s and in the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire was at its height
  • The Ottoman Empire controlled the eastern Mediterranean Sea – look at a map of the Ottoman Empire at its height and this is evident
  • The Italian city-states – like Venice – also dominated trade in the Mediterranean during the 1500s
  • Situated in the heart of a lagoon on the coast of northeast Italy, Venice was a major power in the medieval and early modern world, and a key city in the development of trade routes from the east to Europe
  • Venice’s strategic position on the shores of the Adriatic Sea, within reach of the Byzantine Empire and traders from the Near East, allowed the city to become a hub of trade in the west, receiving goods from the east by sea and disseminating them into the growing European market

Impact of the Introduction of Coffee Growing in Places like Kenya and El Salvador after 1880

  • Kenya was a British colony in Africa – remember that the Berlin Conference in 1884 to 1885 began the “Scramble for Africa” whereby the countries of Western European competed for and claimed colonies in Africa
  • El Salvador is located in Central America – yet even though independent, it was still dependent on agricultural exports
  • But Kenya with its cash crop production favored by imperialists and El Salvador dependent on foreign markets became exporters of the cash crop of coffee
  • A major impact of the introduction of coffee growing in places like Kenya and El Salvador after 1880 was greater dependence on foreign markets by Africans and Latin Americans
  • Yes, cash crops are crops for export and cash crops depend on foreign markets and foreigners to purchase products – therefore cash crop agriculture makes a region very dependent on the world market
  • Monoculture isthe cultivation or growth of a single crop or organism especially on agricultural or forest land

Relations between European States and the Ottoman Empire in the period 1815 to 1914

  • The Ottoman Empire was at its height in the 1500s – by 1815 to 1914, the Ottoman Empire was increasingly known as the “Sick Man of Europe” – the Ottomans had fallen technologically behind Western Europe
  • Russian, English, and French expansion came at the expense of the Ottomans – yes, that is an accurate description of relations between European states and the Ottoman Empire in the period 1815 to 1914
  • The Ottoman Empire in 1914 was commonly known as 'the sick man of Europe', a sign that the once-great power was crumbling
  • The Turks had dominated the Eastern Mediterranean for half a millennium, controlling vast swathes of Central Europe, Arab lands as far down as Egypt and had at one stage been knocking on the doors of Vienna and Venice
  • By the 20th century all that remained in Ottoman hands outside Turkey was Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine and parts of the Arabian Peninsula – the rest of the empire had been gobbled up by the Russians, British, and French

Similarity – Russia and Japan by 1914

  • Rapid, state-sponsored industrialization had occurred in both countries – both Russia and Japan
  • After 1860, the Russian government became involved in building an industrial economy - the government gave subsidies to build railroads – in 1860, Russia had only about 1,250 miles of track; by 1880 it had 15,500 miles
  • Railroads allowed Russia to export grain and earn money for further industrialization
  • Industrial modernization continued in Russia under the leadership of Sergei Witte, Alexander’s finance minister – the railroad network doubled to over 35,000 miles; he also established a series of high protective tariffs that protected Russian industry devised a plan to employ Western capital to build factories in Russia – within ten years, on the strength of foreign investment, a huge steel industry was developed
  • Japan too experienced state sponsored industrialization – under the Meiji Restoration, the government actively pursued a policy of modernization and industrialization

Effects of the Congress of Vienna

  • The Congress of Vienna occurred after the defeat of Napoleon – it was a meeting of the leading statesmen of Western Europe and headed by the Austrian diplomat, Metternich
  • At the Congress of Vienna, the map of Europe was redrawn as the Napoleonic Empire had been defeated, the monarchs were restored to power – monarchs who had been removed by Napoleon, and the old ways of Europe were favored – it was a conservative movement
  • In addition, a balance of power was pursued – a balance of power is the idea that the countries of Europe should be equally strong to prevent a future Napoleon
  • So, the Congress of Vienna led to the restoration of the monarchy in France and the Netherlands
  • It led to a triumph of conservative values – at least, for a time

Similarity – Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires