Of the Lectures, Practicals and Seminars in Veterinary Pharmacology

Of the Lectures, Practicals and Seminars in Veterinary Pharmacology


of the lectures, practicals and seminars in veterinary pharmacology


(1) / Introduction to Pharmacology / Introduction and scope of pharmacology. History of veterinary pharmacology. Drugs and their sources, drug development, evaluation & regulation, screening, clinical trials, systems of classifying drugs. Drug information. Formulations: external and internal dosage forms. Techniques of drug administration in animals. Forensic Pharmacy and Drug Laws. Drugprescribing
Case study & Test.
(2) / Introduction to pharmaceutical compounding technology. Terminology and tests / Drug sources, including biotechnology.
Drugformulationsandroutesoftheiradministration. Physicochemical characteristics of drugs and transport mechanism across biomembranes.
Terminology, weights and measures, statistical and other calculations. Partition coefficient of drugs.
Drug assays. Tests for screening of residues: Nitrates, Nitrites. Identification of various drugs.
(3) / Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Characterization and classification. / Introduction and definitions, types of pharmaceutical preparations, physical pharmacy, weights and measures, calculations.
Drug dosage forms and their characteristics, routes of drug administration, characterization of drug effects. Role of pharmaceutical industry in use and abuse of drugs, monitoring of drug use, hazards of drug therapy, drug interaction and its clinical significance, drug safety.
Weights and measures, calculations
(4) / Preformulation and formulation requirements on preparation of veterinary pharmaceutical dosage forms. / Oral dosage forms, ointments, pastes and jellies, suppositories and pessaries.
Preparation of ointments, liniments and tinctures.
(5) / Pharmaceutical packaging. Advantages and disadvantages of different packaging materials. Requirements and tests. / Containers and closures, labeling, color and flavour, solutions, suspensions, emulsions and creams.
New technologies for application of veterinary therapeutics.
Exercises in the preparation of different solutions, extracts, suspensions, emulsions, ointments etc. for external and internal uses.
(6) / Biotechnology and biopharmacy in veterinary pharmaceutical practice. Current trends, innovations and future perspectives. / Sterilization practices in pharmaceutics, sterilization of injections and other pharmaceutical products, classification of injections, sterility testing and aseptic, techniques, preservation of pharmaceutical products. Drug residues.
Study of different types of incompatibilities. Formulation of injections, sterilization, aseptic techniques and sterility testing methods.
Colloquium I: Lectures 1 – 6
(7) / Pharmacokinetics of drugs. Pharmacogenetics and drug idiosyncrasy / Pharmacokinetics of drugs. Pharmacogenetics
Definitions. Transmembrane transport of drugs. P-gp and MDR. Absorption and various routes of drug administration. Distribution, Metabolism (biotransformation), and Excretion of Drugs. Pharmakokinetic parameters. Pharmacogenetics, drug idiosyncrasy and drug toxicity due to impaired drug metabolism. Altered sensitivity to drugs. Species defferences in pharmacokinetics. Examples.
(8) / Pharmacodynamics of Drugs. Autacoids and their pharmacological influence / Pharmacodynamics of Drugs. Autacoids
General Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action, drug targets and drug effects. Non-specific drug actions. Specific drug actions. Specific targets of drug actions. Different types receptors and ligands. Sensitization and desensitizations of receptors. Dose-response relationships. Graded and alternative dose response. Different type of doses. Therapeutic index. Factors, affecting drug concentration at the site of action. Structure activity relationship. Autacoids and their pharmacological influence: Histamine and antihistamines, 5-HT and its agonists and antagonists, eicosanoids, COX inhibitors and PAF, peptides, and cytokines. Examples.
Drug prescriptions & Tests.
(9) / Adverse Drug Reactions / Adverse Drug Reactions
Principles of toxic drug action, selective toxicity, safety testing of drugs including husbandry and the use of experimental animals, common plant poisons, organic poisons including therapeutic drugs, inorganic compounds such as the metals, pesticides including rodenticides, toxins of animal origin, investigation of suspected poisoning cases, use of emetics and antidotes, and relevance of toxic and drug residues in carcasses and the environment.
Types of ADRs – A, B, C, D, E & F. Side & toxic effects. Overdosage & acute toxicity. Identification of ADRs. Drug resistance, drug tolerance and physical dependence, and mechanism of development of dependence. Drug abuse and doping.
Drug allergy – immunologic basis. Tests for predicting drug allergies. Drug residues and their veterinary and public health concerns, role of veterinarian in prevention of residues. Mass medication and growth promoting agents.
Case study & Test.
(10) / Drugs Acting on CNS – part I: Neurotransmitters in CNS. Anestethics.
Analgetics. Euthanizing Agents / Drugs Acting on CNS – part I
Neurotransmitters in CNS. General anestethics. Pre-anesthetic medication. Local anesthetics. Anesthesia in dogs, buffaloes cows and sheep. Opioid analgesics and their antagonists. Antipyretic analgesics. Mechanism of action, clinical applications in VM (veterinary medicine),kinetics, ADRs, known interactions.Antiarkinsonian drugs.Euthanizing agents and rules.
Drug prescriptions & Tests.
(11) / Drugs Acting on CNS – part II:Anticonvulsants. Sedatives and Behavior-Modifying Drugs / Drugs Acting on CNS – part II
Anticonvulsants (barbiturates, bromides, hydantoins, benzodiazepines, carboxamides, valproates, analogs of GABA etc.). Sedatives used in VM (typical neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, alfa-2 adrenergic agonist, herbal preparations). Behavior-modifying drugs: H1-blockers from first generations, psychotripic drugs (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, including as euhypnotics, azapyrones, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, MAO-B inhibitors, lithium, psychostimulants, nootropics), antiadrenergic drugs, non-selectiv beta-blockers, opioid agonists and antagonists, progestins, and pheromones.
(12) / Drugs Acting on ANS. Neuromuscular blocking agents / Drugs Acting on ANS
Anatomical properties of ANS. Cholinergic mediations. Direct-acting cholinergic drugs and mushroom intoxications. Indirect-acting cholinergic drugs (anticholinesterase drugs). Bulgarian contribution to the creation of anticholinergic drugs. Anticholinergic drugs:M-cholinolytics and Neuromuscular blockingagents (competitive and their antagonists) and depolarizing (and their toxicity). Adrenergic mediations. Direct-acting adrenomimetics (alpha-, selective beta-1 or beta-2, non-selective and mixed adrenomimetics). Indirect-acting adrenomimetics (alkaloids etc.). Antiadrenergic drugs: beta-blockers (selective beta-1, nonselective, mixed), alpha-blockers, centrally acting drugs (alfa-2 agonists, I1-agonists), and adrenergic neuron blockers. Mechanism of action, clinical applications,kinetics, ADRs, known interactions.
Colloquium II: Lectures 7 – 12
(13) / Drugs acting on cardiovascular system / Cardiovascular system – dynamics of blood flow and conduction system. Role of ANS and renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular function. Antiarrhythmic drugs – classification, mechanism of action, ADRs, drug interactions. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents, Calcium channel blockers. Positive cardioinotropic drugs: cardiac glycosides. Antihypertensives, vasodilators, diuretics, antiatherosclerotic drugs. Other drugs used in CV diseases.
Case study & Test.
(14) / Drugs acting on respiratory system / Respiratory system function & protective mechanism. Coughing mechanism & antitussives, mucolytics, expectorants, decongestants. Bronhodilators – beta-2 adrenergic agonists, methylxanthines. Other drugs for respiratory diseases – antimicrobials, corticosteroids, antihistamines, diuretics, oxygen, carbogen.
Case study & Test.
(15) / Drugs acting on gastrointestinal tract / Function & control of GIT – species differences. ANS control of GIT. Emetics & antiemetic drugs. Laxatives, cathartics, purgatives & antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants. Antiacids & antiulcer drugs. Ruminatorics & antibloat medications. Other drugs for GIT diseases – antimicrobials. Drugs used in dental disorders. Oral electrolyte replacement. Pancreatic enzyme supplements. Drugs for treatment of liver diseases.
Case study & Test.


of the lectures, practicals and seminars in veterinary pharmacology


(1) / Drugs acting on the blood. Drugs acting on fluid and electrolyte balance / Drugs affecting renal functions and electrolyte metabolism, diuretics, drugs for urinary retention & incontinence. Treatment of navicular disease. Drugs used in the treatment of mastitis. Drugs used in the treatment of renal failure, cystitis & urinary tract infections. Drugs that alter urinary pH.
Drugs stimulating hemopoiesis. Hemostatics.
Antianemia drugs, anticoagulants (heparin, LMWH, oral anticoagulants) & antiaggregants, fibrinolytics.
Case study & Test.
(2) / Inflammation & Allergy.
Anti-inflammatory drugs: NSAIDs & Glucorticisteroids. Hondroprotectors / Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) & corticosteroids. Topical antiinflammatory & antiallergy drugs. Treatment of gout.
Case study & Test.
(3) / Endocrine pharmacology / Pituitary & hypothalamic hormones. Thyroid & antithyroid drugs. Corticosteroids – gluco & mineralcorticoids. Anabolic steroids. Anti-diabetic Drugs – insulins & oral antidiabetics, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia. Drugs for treatment of hyper– and hypo-adrenocorticism. Parathyroid disease – calcium regulating drugs.
Case study & Test.
(4) / Drugs acting on reproductive system / Drugs used to promote gonadal function. Sex hormones – estrogens, progestogens, androgens & antihormones. Prostaglandins. Myometrial stimulants & relaxants. Prolactin antagonists, non-hormonal abortificients. Drugs used in uterine infections. Contraceptives.
Case study & Test.
(5) / Antibacterial Drugs – part I:
Beta-lactam antibiotics, glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines / Antibacterial Drugs – part I
Classification of antiinfective agents used in VM.Aimsofantibacterialtherapy. ADRs (incl. resistanceandhypersensitivity). Beta-lactamantibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carabapenems, monobactams, beta-lactamaseinhibitors), glycopeptides, aminoglycosidesandtetracyclines. Mechanismofaction, clinicalapplicationsinVM, pharmalokinetics, ADRs, knowninteractions.
Drug prescriptions & Tests.
(6) / Antibacterial Drugs – part II:
Amphenicols, macrolides, lincosamides, polymixins, streptogramins, oxaziolidinones, sulfonamides, quinolones, oxyquinolones, nitrofurans, metronidazole etc. Principle of rational antibacterial chemoterapy / Antibacterial Drugs – part II
Amphenicols, macrolides, lincosamides, polymixins, streptogramins, oxaziolidinones, sulfonamides, quinolones, oxyquinolones, nitrofurans, metronidazole, rifampicin and clofazimine. Principle of rational antibacterial antibacterial therapy. Mechanism of action, clinical applications in VM,kinetics, ADRs, drug interactions.
Drug prescriptions & Tests.
(7) / Antiviral drugs. Treatment of selected viral diseases / Antiviral drugs.Treatment of selected viral diseases
Classification of viruses by genome type. Targets of antiviral therapy. Antiviral induced neurotoxicity. Antiherpetic drugs (pyrimidine nuclosides, purine nuclosides, and others). Antiretroviral drugs in human and cats (nucleoside and non-nucleoside analogs, HIV-protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors; drug for treatment of opportunistic HIV infections). Drug used in influenza viral infections in humans: cyclic amines and neuraminidase inhibitors, influenza virus vaccines. Interferones (INFs). Mechanism of action, clinical applications in VM,pharmacokinetics, ADRs, known interactions. Treatment of selected canine viral infections. Treatment of selected feline viral infections
Colloquium III: Lectures 1 – 6
(8) / Antifungal drugs(Antimycotics) / Antimycotics, violating permeability of the cell membrane (Imidazoles, Triazoles, Griseofulvin, Polyene antibiotics, etc.). Antifungals inhibiting chitin synthesis in the cell wall. Antifungals inhibiting synthesis of nucleic acids.
Case study & Test.
(9) / Drugs for malignant diseases. Immunology & vaccines / Cytotoxic drugs – alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antitumor antibiotics, vinca alkaloids, platinum compounds & others. Sex hormones & hormone antagonists. Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases: alkylating agents, antimetabolites, hormones and other antiproliferatives.
Immunity – passive & active. Principles of immunology, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy, active and passive immunization, types of vaccines, administration of vaccines, vaccine failures, ADRs to vaccines, adjuvants, and immunostimulants. Contra-indications, side-effects, storage & handling of vaccines.
(10) / Drugs used for external and internal parasites, coccidiostats and blood parasites / Endoparasiticides – drugs for roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes). Compound endoparasiticides. Ectoparasiticides, insect growth regulators, repelents & environmental control.
Case study & Test.
(11) / Drugs acting locally on the skin and mucus membrane of eyes and ears / Wound management. Shampoos. Skin cleansers & desinfectants. Antiinfective aer preparations, ear cleansers & sebolytics. Administration of drugs to the eye. Antiinfective & antiinflammatory eye preparations, mydriatics & cycloplegics, drugs used in glaucoma & local anestetics. Drugs acting on feet – antiinfectives & hoof care preparations.
Colloquium IV: Lectures 7–11
(12) / Forensic veterinary pharmacology - drugs used in the treatment of animals used in competition / Controlling organs, threshold levels. Considerations of drug administration. Medication & vaccination in equine competitions. Medication & vaccination in canine competitions. Medication & vaccination of racing pigeons. Medication & vaccination of show animals – dogs & cats.
Case study & Test.
(13) / Veterinary toxicology / Concepts in veterinary toxicology. Terms and definitions, toxicodynamics, basic principles of diagnosis and treatment. Organ toxicity, carcinogenesis, pesticides & herbicides – insecticides & molluscicides, rodenticides & avicides, herbicides & fungicides, industrial toxicants. Veterinary antidotes – indications & dosages. Animal bites and stings: snake venom, scorpion, spider and insect stings and toad poisoning. Bacterial toxins: botulism.
Case study & Test.
(14) / Medicinal plants and herbal drugsused in veterinary medicine / Types of herbal drugs. Composition and problems about their standardization. Steps in creating of phytoproducts. Toxicity of medicinal plants.Plants containing cyanide, nitrate/nitrite, oxalate, lectins and cardiotoxic glycosides. Plants producing lathyrism, thiamine deficiency and photosensitization.Poisonous plants: Classification, identification and chemical constituents of poisonous plants. Toxicology of mycotoxins: aflatoxins, rubratoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, tremorgens and ergot.
Poisonous, hallucinogenic, narcotic, allergenic, teratogenic toxic plants and their mode of action.
Drug prescriptions & Tests.
(15) / Nutritional pharmacology. Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins. Homeopathy / Nutritional Pharmacology. Electrolyte & water replacement. Plasma substitutes, oral & parenteral nutrition. Drugs for ketosis. Vitamins & minerals. Multivitamin & mineral preparations. EFAs. Nutrition in critically ill animals – dietetic foods in liver. Renal & congestive heart failure, diarrhea, diabetes, Homeopathic drugs.
Case study & Test.


1. Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics – 2nd ed. D.M. Boothe (ed.). Elsevier. Inc. London, 2008.

2. Small Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. D.M. Boothe and (ed.). Elsevier. Inc. London, 2012.

3. Veterirnary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. J.E. Riviere and M.G. Papich (eds.) – 9th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

3. Lectures and Seminars

4. Георгиев, Б.Г. (под ред.) Ветеринарно-медицински фармакологичен справочник. Изд. „Мултипринт” ЕООД. София, 2010.

5. Conspectus

6. Web site: and Tests/Veterinary Pharmacology


(1) Written Paper I (duration: 30 min):

This paper is designed to test the student knowledge of the principles of Veterinary Pharmacology. This written paper will focus on basic concepts.

(2) Written Paper II (duration: 20 minutes):

This paper is designed to (a) test the student ability to apply the principles of Veterinary Pharmacology to particular cases/problems. This paper will focus on practice and clinical applications.

(3) Drug Prescriptions or Pharmacokinetic Tasks (duration: 10min)

(4) Oral Examination (duration: 15min):

This examination requires the candidate to demonstrate achievement of the Learning Outcomes listed earlier. Questions will be delivered verbally and the student will deliver an oral explanation.