Naturalistic Decision Making

Naturalistic Decision Making


Naturalistic Decision Making

Saori Wendy Yosioka, MLIS AHIP (Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA)

Spring 2013


1. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012 Apr;49(4):481-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.10.015. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Expanding the scope of decision-making research for nursing and midwiferypractice.

Cioffi J.

Decision making embedded in clinical situations is studied to inform nursing and midwifery practice and to enhance clinical effectiveness. To date this knowledgehas mainly been derived from classical decision-making research approaches thatare limited in capturing cognition in rapidly changing 'real-world' clinicalenvironments. A naturalistic decision making approach can strengthen theecological validity of descriptive investigations in certain dynamic clinicaldecision situations that include urgency and complexity. This paper presents adiscussion about naturalistic decision making, its relevance for studying certainclinical decision situations in the 'real world' of nursing and midwiferypractice and its application in a midwifery decision-making situation. Inconclusion classical decision-making research approaches can be extended toinclude the naturalistic decision making approach that can capture decisionmaking in dynamic clinical situations and show the underlying knowledge thatdistinguishes more experienced clinicians.

PMID: 22078210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2. J Forensic Sci. 2011 Jul;56(4):890-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01714.x. Epub

2011 Mar 1.

Naturalistic decision making in forensic science: toward a better understanding of decision making by forensic team leaders.

Helsloot I, Groenendaal J.

This study uses the naturalistic decision-making (NDM) perspective to examine how Dutch forensic team leaders (i.e., the officers in charge of criminal forensicresearch from the crime scene until the use of laboratory assistance) makedecisions in real-life settings and identifies the contextual factors that mightinfluence those decisions. First, a focus group interview was conducted to identify four NDM mechanisms in day-to-day forensic decision making. Second, aserious game was conducted to examine the influence of three of these contextual mechanisms. The results uncovered that forensic team leaders (i) were attractedto obtain further information when more information was initially made available,(ii) were likely to devote more attention to emotionally charged cases, and (iii)used not only forensic evidence in the decision making but also tactical,unverified information of the police inquiry. Interestingly, the measuredcontextual influences did not deviate significantly from a control group oflaypeople.

PMID: 21361940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. Hum Factors. 2008 Jun;50(3):456-60.

Naturalistic decision making.

Klein G.

OBJECTIVE: This article describes the origins and contributions of the naturalistic decision making (NDM) research approach.

BACKGROUND: NDM research emerged in the 1980s to study how people make decisions in real-world settings. Method: The findings and methods used by NDM researchers are presented along with their implications.

RESULTS: The NDM framework emphasizes the role of experience in enabling peopleto rapidly categorize situations to make effective decisions.

CONCLUSION: The NDM focus on field settings and its interest in complexconditions provide insights for human factors practitioners about ways to improveperformance.

APPLICATION: The NDM approach has been used to improve performance throughrevisions of military doctrine, training that is focused on decisionrequirements, and the development of information technologies to support decisionmaking and related cognitive functions.

PMID: 18689053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Ergonomics. 2007 Sep;50(9):1433-50.

Naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players.

Macquet AC, Fleurance P.

This paper reports on a study of naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players. These decisions are frequently taken under time-pressured conditions,yet normally lead to successful performance. Two male badminton teamsparticipated in this study. Self-confrontation interviews were used to collectdata. Inductive data analysis revealed three types of intentions during a rally: to maintain the rally; to take the advantage; and to finish the point. It alsorevealed eight types of decision taken in this situation: to ensure an action; toobserve the opponent's response to an action; to realize a limited choice; toinfluence the opponent's decision; to put pressure on an opponent; to surprisethe opponent; to reproduce an efficient action; and to play wide. A frequentdecision was to put pressure on the opponent. Different information and knowledgewas linked to specific decisions. The results are discussed in relation toresearch that has considered naturalistic decision-making.

PMID: 17654035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005 Jun;76(6 Suppl):B154-63.

Crew collaboration in space: a naturalistic decision-making perspective.

Orasanu J.

Successful long-duration space missions will depend on the ability of crewmembers to respond promptly and effectively to unanticipated problems that arise underhighly stressful conditions. Naturalistic decision making (NDM) exploits theknowledge and experience of decision makers in meaningful work domains,especially complex sociotechnical systems, including aviation and space. Decisionmaking in these ambiguous, dynamic, high-risk environments is a complex task thatinvolves defining the nature of the problem and crafting a response to achieveone's goals. Goal conflicts, time pressures, and uncertain outcomes may furthercomplicate the process. This paper reviews theory and research pertaining to the

NDM model and traces some of the implications for space crews and other groups that perform meaningful work in extreme environments. It concludes with specific recommendations for preparing exploration crews to use NDM effectively.

PMID: 15943208 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. J Biomed Inform. 2002 Feb;35(1):52-75.

Emerging paradigms of cognition in medical decision-making.

Patel VL, Kaufman DR, Arocha JF.

The limitations of the classical or traditional paradigm of decision research are increasingly apparent, even though there has been a substantial body of empiricalresearch on medical decision-making over the past 40 years. As decision-supporttechnology continues to proliferate in medical settings, it is imperative that"basic science" decision research develop a broader-based and more validfoundation for the study of medical decision-making as it occurs in the naturalsetting. This paper critically reviews both traditional and recent approaches tomedical decision making, considering the integration of problem-solving anddecision-making research paradigms, the role of conceptual knowledge indecision-making, and the emerging paradigm of naturalistic decision-making. Wealso provide an examination of technology-mediated decision-making. Expanding thescope of decision research will better enable us to understand optimal decisionprocesses, suitable coping mechanisms under suboptimal conditions, thedevelopment of expertise in decision-making, and ways in which decision-supporttechnology can successfully mediate decision processes.

PMID: 12415726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Hum Factors. 2001 Summer;43(2):227-38.

Information order and outcome framing: an assesment of judgment bias in a naturalistic decision-making context.

Perrin BM, Barnett BJ, Walrath L, Grossman JD.

Findings that decision makers can come to different conclusions depending on the order in which they receive information have been termed the "information orderbias." When trained, experienced individuals exhibit similar behaviors; however,it has been argued that this result is not a bias, but rather, a pattern-matchingprocess. This study provides a critical examination of this claim. It alsoassesses both experts' susceptibility to an outcome framing bias and the effects of varying task loads on judgment. Using a simulation of state-of-the-art shipdefensive systems operated by experienced, active-duty U.S. Navy officers, wefound no evidence of a framing bias, while task load had a minor, but systematiceffect. The order in which information was received had a significant impact, with the effect being consistent with a judgment bias. Nonetheless, we note that pattern-matching processes, similar to those that produce inferential andreconstructive effects on memory, could also explain our results. Actual orpotential applications of this research include decision support systeminterfaces or training programs that might be developed to reduce judgment bias.

PMID: 11592664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Books/Book Section

Klein, Gary A. Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods. Norwood, N.J: Ablex Pub.; 1993.

Lehto MR, Nah F. Decision-Making Models and Decision Support. Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006. p. 191-242.

Nemeth C, Klein G, Cochran JJ, Cox LA, Keskinocak P, Kharoufeh JP, Smith JC. The Naturalistic Decision Making Perspective. Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.

Zsambok, Caroline E, and Gary A. Klein. Naturalistic Decision Making. Mahwah, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.; 1997.


A brief description of Naturalistic Decision Making.


Slides from MIT explaining Naturalistic Decision Making.

Title: Decision Making

Slides by Dr. Steve from the University of West Florida

Title: Decision Making

Slides by a faculty member from Mercer University

Searched by Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP