Module 1: Ageing and the Ageing Process

Module 1: Ageing and the Ageing Process

Module 1: Ageing and the Ageing Process

Slide 1: The AGID Training Modules Series

Slide 1 The AGID Training Modules Series

Module 1: Ageing and the Ageing Process
Author: Raghu Raghavan (De Montfort University), Assistant: Gemma Fox (De Montfort University)

Developers: Steve Mackenzie (De Montfort University), Jonathan Yaseen (Northumbria University)

February 25, 2014


AGREEMENT n. 2011 – 4000/001-001

Slide 2: Copyright and Disclaimer Notice

Slide 2 Copyright and Disclaimer Notice

Copyright: The AGID Training Modules developed by The AGID Consortium are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported Licence. Based on a work at Permissions beyond the scope of this licence may be available at This licence excludes any Microsoft media elements (photos and clip art) used. These have been used with permission from Microsoft and are licensed under their original terms and conditions (for more information see

In short you are free to share ( copy, distribute and transmit the work) this resource but you must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor, you may not use this work for commercial purposes and you may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. Please read the full license details here:

Attribution: Please attribute as follows:
AGID Consortium (2014) Module 1: The Ageing Process, Ageing and Intellectual Disability Modules. Luxembourg.

Disclaimer: These series of modules are intended to raise awareness on the ageing of persons with intellectual disability and improve the quality of the services provided. We recommend that you build on this initial introductory training with further appropriate training to enhance your skills, knowledge and capabilities when working with ageing and elderly persons with intellectual disabilities.

Slide 3: Welcome

Slide 3 Welcome

Welcome to this training module. This module is the first of six training modules on the topic of Ageing and Intellectual Disability.

This set of modules has been developed by the AGID Consortium. A European wide group consisting of universities and service providers from the field of Social care. The lead and Co-ordinating partner is La Fondation A.P.E.M.H. (Association de Parents d’Enfants Mentalement Handicapés)

Other partners include:

ARFIE- (Association de Recherche et de Formation sur l’Insertion en Europe) (BE)

CADIAI (Cooperativa Assistenza Domiciliare Infermi Anziani Infanzia)(IT)

De Montfort University (GB)

Les Genêts d’Or (Association Médico-sociale pour personnes handicapées et/ou dépendentes) (FR)

University of Vienna(AUT)

Zonnelied vzw (Dienstverleningscentrum voor volwassen personen met een handicap) (BE)

We hope you find the training modules useful. On successful completion you will be able to earn a certificate of achievement for all modules that are part of the series. If this is not your first module in the series you may want to skip the introductory sections and link straight to the About this Module section.

Slide 4: Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 1

Slide 4 Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 1

Before you start working your way through the materials we thought it worthwhile to clearly define the meaning of certain terms.

Disabilities: The World Health Organisation defines disabilities as an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.

The UN convention on the rights of person with disabilities provides a definition of a person with a disability:

A person with a disability is an individual whose ability to lead an inclusive life in the community of his/her own choice is limited by the separate or concomitant impact of physical, economic, social and cultural environments and/or personal factors that interact with physical, sensory, psychosocial, neurological, medical, intellectual or other conditions that may be permanent, temporary, intermittent or imputed.

Slide 5: Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 2

Slide 5 Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 2

The American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities uses the following definition for intellectual disability and this is the one adhered to in this series of modules:

Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both inintellectual functioning(reasoning, learning, problem solving) and inadaptive behaviour, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Other key definitions adhered to throughout this series of modules are:

Older person with a disability: An older person with a disability is someone who has experienced the effects of a disability before experiencing the effects of old age.

Professionals: Paid and specifically trained staff who are involved to any extent in the provision of health, social care or education. For example doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, social assistants, physiotherapists, educational support staff and speech and language therapists.

Front-line staff: People who work daily and directly in the role of carers, health-workers, educators to provide support in the daily lives and activities of ageing people with intellectual disabilities wherever they live.

Family Carers: Members of the individual's family who contribute directly to support for the person with a disability.

Slide 6: Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 3

Slide 6 Key Definitions and Understandings – Part 3

Be careful not to wrongly attribute certain signs of pathologies to intellectual deficiency or ageing.

Any significant change in attitude, taste or behaviour should be reported to the doctor to help him to correctly diagnose the problem.

Below are a few examples (non-exhaustive list) of possible signs that are frequently attributed to the deficiency, which may in reality be the expression of a pathology (for more see information see module 5, Pathological Ageing):

Isolation, indifference, fatigability = signs of depression

Impatience, attention deficit, forgetfulness = signs of dementia

Incoherency, fatigability, loss of appetite = signs of dehydration

Loss of appetite, irritability, isolation = signs of pain

Isolation, incoherency, aggressiveness = signs of deafness

Slide 7: How the Module is Organised

Slide 7 How the Module is Organised

How to use this Training Module

About this Module

Pre Module Awareness Exercise

Section 1: What is Ageing?

Section 2: Social Construction of Ageing

Section 3: Policy on Ageing

Section 4: Ageing and Intellectual Disability

Summary and Post Module Test (Final Assessment)

Slide 8: How to use this Training Module

Slide 8 How to use this Training Module

If you have not used this training module or a similar training module in the series before we recommend that you take the time to review the information in this “How to use this Training Module” section. You will find information on the following topics:

Who are the AGID training modules for?

Working through an AGID training module

Navigation and Search


Reflective and Quiz Exercises

Assessment and Certification

Accessibility and Usability

Software Requirements

Hardware Requirements

Slide 9: Who are the AGID Training Modules For?

Slide 9 Who are the AGID Training Modules For?

The training modules are primarily aimed at:

Professional carers working with people with intellectual disability.

However they will also be of great value to:

Other members of professions working with older people with intellectual disability such as medical doctors, nurses, psychologists etc. and

Family carers – fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, aunts… caring for an older person related to them.

This training module can be worked through on your own as an individual. It will have more value if you can discuss the topics raised from the exercises with others, especially colleagues with whom you work closely with.

We would recommend that the reflective exercises in this training module are best worked through as part of a group, with a colleague or with the help and support of a mentor.

This training module can be used:

Purely as an online resource for the individual to access.

As part of a kick off workshop with on-going online access to the resource.

As part of a series of ongoing workshops.

Slide 10: Working through an AGID Training Module

Slide 10 Working Through an AGID Training Module

There is one introductory section, a series of content sections and a summary section in this module. Each section is colour coded and will consist of slides of information interspersed with self-help, reflective or quiz type exercises to reinforce your learning.

To get the most out of this training module you are urged to work slowly and methodically through the module paying particular attention to the reflective exercises which are designed to allow you to think carefully about the issues raised in the module.

We suggest that you initially work through the module linearly one slide after the other. However you will be able to review any section of the module at anytime using the left hand menu.

Note that any images of people used throughout the module are for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to be an actual representation.

In addition to the information and links in this module, additional useful links and references are available on the AGID website (

After you have finished the training module you will be able to easily access all links and media contained in the module, from the AGID website (

Slide 11: Navigation and Search

Slide 11 Navigation and Search


The primary way of navigating is mouse clicking on the navigation menu (left hand side of the screen). A left mouse click on the next and previous slide buttons on the bottom right hand corner of the content area moves you to the next or previous slide as appropriate. (note: On exercise slides you will need to use the navigation menu or the ‘finish’, ‘continue’ or ‘next’ buttons to move to the next slide).

The following keyboard shortcut keys can also be used to navigate through the module:

Arrow Left, Arrow Up or Page Up: Go to Previous Slide.

Arrow Right, Arrow Down or Page Down: Go to Play Next Slide.

O/T/S – Select tabs: Outline, Thumbnails, Search.

Tab Key: moves the user from sequentially though navigation and slide links that are visible on the slide. Use this key to access the Attachments and Send email Links.

Enter Key: will open a link in a new browser or tab window.

Home: Go to First Slide and End: Go to Last slide.


The navigation menu is listed under the ‘Outline’ tab. To the right of this tab you will see the ‘Search’ tab. Use this to search for any word or phrase in the module. A link to any slides containing this word or phrase will be listed underneath the ‘Search’ tab.

Slide 12: Links

Slide 12 Links

The module has been developed so that you should be able to work your way through it independent of any of the many useful web links and references that are provided. The web links and references however will allow you to explore much more deeply the module topic.

All links in this module including web links are coloured blue. The types of links in this module are:

Links to web sites or web pages links .e.g. or AGID Project website .

Links to documents stored on external websites as well as documents stored on the AGID project website.

Links to Exercise Sheets.

Links to other slides in this module.

Email links.

If your module contains a glossary there are also glossary links in a pastel Blue Colour.

At the time of publication all links were valid and accessible. Should any web link become unavailable please send an email to A.P.E.M.H. at with the slide number and the Url and we will endeavour to update as soon as is possible.

Slide 13: Reflective and Quiz Exercises

Slide 13 Reflective and Quiz Exercises

Interspersed throughout the training module are reflective and quiz type exercises.

You will be able to print out and save your quiz answers. Note that if you decide to ‘retake the question’ (both reflective and quiz) you are in effect starting again and you will lose your original responses.

For the reflective questions and answers you will be given the option of an exercise sheet to print out and work on.

Note: You may find it preferable to use a notebook to jot down some of your thoughts and reflections.

Slide 14: Assessment and Certification

Slide 14 Assessment and Certification

The Learning

Throughout the training module you will consistently be required to take short reflective or quiz type exercises. These are purely for learning purposes and have no bearing on the final assessment and subsequent certification.

You can discuss the content of the module with other colleagues whilst you are studying the module, in fact we encourage you to do this. When you actually take the final test assessment you must declare that you and you alone completed the final Post Module Assessment.

The Assessment

Once you have worked your way through the training module at the end you can take the Post Module Assessment. To pass the test you need to score 80%. If you pass the assessment you can print out a pass certificate for completing the course successfully. You can take the test as many times as you like.

The Value

Gaining a pass certificate is i) a declaration by yourself that you have invested the time to gain an introductory basic understanding of the module content which will help you in your job as a carer and ii) offers formal recognition that you have indeed invested that time.

Slide 15: Accessibility and Usability

Slide 15 Accessibility and Usability

Primary Technology

The primary technology to view and work with this e-learning module is ADOBE Flash. The latest version needs to be installed on your web browser. It is primarily a visual presentation with the ability to use mouse clicks or keyboard keys to navigate through the module (See Navigation and Search).

Alternative Ways of Viewing this Material.

To take advantage of assistive technology users may prefer to use the following alternative formats. One or both of these formats will be available on the AGID Website:

Microsoft PowerPoint: PowerPoint slide notes are used to store text slide content. Many assistive software packages can use this facility to enhance accessibility options.

Adobe PDF format: Adobe Reader has a number of accessibility functions such as enlarging text and changing colour schemes. See the help file in your version of Adobe Reader for more details.

Slide 16: Software Requirements

Slide 16 Software Requirements

The primary technology the AGID Modules use to deliver the online learning package is Adobe Flash. This needs to be installed In the web browser that you are using to access the AGID Website and to subsequently view the AGID Modules.

Download Adobe Flash

Popular web browsers that you can use to access the AGID Website and Modules include:

Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.x or higher (visit theInternet Explorer download page)

Mozilla Firefox 3.x or higher (visit theFireFox Download page).

Google Chrome (visit the Google Chrome Download page)

Safari (visit the Safari Download page)

Opera (visit the Opera Download page)

If using alternate options to view the module content, the exercise sheets or some of the reference documents you’ll need to download and install either:

Adobe reader for the Adobe PDF format: (visit the Adobe Reader Download page) or the

Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer for the Microsoft PowerPoint format: (visit the Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer download page)

Please note that the AGID Consortium cannot accept any liability for loss or damage of whatever nature and extent resulting directly or indirectly from the use of this e-learning module or of any of the third party software.

Slide 17: Hardware Requirements

Slide 17 Hardware Requirements

You will need an internet connection.

Adobe has tested Adobe® Flash® Player 9 extensively on the following minimum hardware configurations:

Windows®, Intel® Pentium® II 450MHz or faster processor (or equivalent), 128MB of RAM

Macintosh, PowerPC® G3 500MHz or faster processor or Intel Core™ Duo 1.33GHz or faster processor, 128MB of RAM

Linux®, Modern processor (800MHz or faster), 512MB of RAM, 128MB of graphics memory

Source: System Requirements page on the Adobe Website

Slide 18: About this Module

Slide 18 About this Module

Before you starting working through the module content please read this ‘About this Module’ section in conjunction with the training guide that can be found on the AGID website.