Fire Service Rescue (6th Edition)
Chapter 2-Rescue Scene Management
What is the importance of effectively handling the initial response?
- It maximizes efficiency in organizing the rescue scene.
What elements should be included in a predetermined standardized response of a rescue unit?
- Obtaining the exact location.
- Emergency medical services needed.
- Rescue and extrication capabilities needed.
- Fire protection needed.
- Law enforcement and other agencies needed.
What are the major functions of the incident commander?
- Making decisions.
- Managing resources.
How can rescue workers develop confidence and mental toughness required for rescue operations?
- Realistic drills and simulations.
What is the IC's first priority in regards to safety?
- Rescuer safety (second is victim safety).
What factors determine how the command/management system is implemented?
- Staffing levels.
- Equipment availability.
- General operating guidelines.
When should a formal command post be established?
- The first-arriving emergency vehicle should be established as the command post until it is determined that a formal command post be established.
- A formal CP should be established when the incident involves multiple units and it appears that the incident will be a protracted operation.
What scene evaluation questions should be asked by the first-arriving rescuer on scene?
- What has occurred?
- What is the current victim(s) status?
- Is the situation stable or getting worse?
- Can rescue be handled by resources on scene or en route?
What should the first-arriving company do if not equipped to start a rescue?
- Do whatever possible including cordoning off area and isolating any witnesses to the accident.
What are the decision making steps for a rescue operation?
- Gather facts.
- Identify problem.
- Develop a strategy.
- Consider alternatives.
- Choose and implement tactics.
- Evaluate progress.
What are the main points of the Phoenix decision-making Model?
- Each emergency response is begun with the assumption that they "can protect lives and property."
- They will "risk their lives a lot, if necessary, to save savable lives."
- They will "risk their lives a little, and in a calculated manner, to save savable property."
- They will "NOT risk their lives at all to save lives and property that have already been lost."
What types of experts may be needed by an IC?
- Structural or mechanical engineers.
- Chemists or hazardous materials specialists.
- Railroad officials.
- Farmers or agricultural extension agents.
- Industrial plant maintenance or engineering personnel.
- Elevator mechanics or building engineers.
- Mine or cave rescue experts.
What is the general rule for employing the levels of management in the incident command/management system?
- Only the parts of the system that are needed to handle the incident safely and efficiently should be implemented.
What common elements are included in every rescue system?
- Scene assessment.
- Establishing command and control.
What is meant by scene assessment?
- Assess the needs and future needs to complete the incident including staffing, equipment, and vehicles.
What are the most common groups/sectors in an incident command/management system?
How can position specialists be identified at a rescue scene?
- Wearing colored vests with labeled positions and establishing an easily identified command post.
What are the basic responsibilities of the rescue group/sector?
- Determine number, location, and condition of victim(s).
- Evaluate resources required.
- Determine whether treatment is to be provided on scene or away from scene.
- Advise IC of resource requirements.
- Allocate and supervise resources assigned to the rescue.
- Report progress to IC (give "all-clear signal" when all victims have been removed).
- Coordinate with other groups/sectors.
What are the basic responsibilities of the triage/treatment group/sector?
- Triage victims and continually evaluate their condition.
- Determine resources needed to treat/transport and advise IC.
- Identify and establish treatment areas (immediate, delayed, minor) and advise IC of pick up points.
- Determine transportation priorities and communicate with Transportation Group Supervisor and/or IC.
- Maintain accurate record of victims and where they are transported to in the absence of a Transportation Group Supervisor.
- Keep IC informed of progress/problems.
- Coordinate with other groups/sectors.
What are the basic responsibilities of the transportation group/sector?
- Determine transportation requirements (based on Triage/Treatment reports) and the availability of ambulances and other forms of transportation.
- Report progress/problems to IC.
- Identify ambulance staging/loading areas and helicopter landing zones, if necessary.
- Verify victim-handling capabilities of the medical facilities receiving the victims.
- Determine specific entry and exit locations from the triage/treatment area(s).
- Coordinate the order of victim transportation and medical facility allocation with Treatment Group/Sector.
- Maintain a record of where each victim is taken.
- Establish a means of transporting ambulatory victims.
- Coordinate with other groups/sectors.
What are appropriate landing sites for helicopters?
- Parking lots.
- Open fields.
- Median strips.
- Other unobstructed areas at least 70 x 70 feet.
How does rescue apparatus placement differ in fire and non-fire situations?
- Placement should be where the vehicle does not interfere with fire fighting operations but where equipment will be readily available.
- Positioned nearest the incident.
What are the guidelines for rescue apparatus placement?
- Position between scene and oncoming traffic when on roadway.
- Spot close enough to incident to make equipment removal easy.
- Do not place apparatus to close where victim would be exposed to vehicle exhaust, vibration, or noise.
- Place uphill and upwind when possible.
- Keep vehicle away from downed power lines, damaged transformers, and escaping flammable gas.
- Do no drive near open trenches (vibration may cause cave-in).
- Do not block scene. Allow access for ambulance ,other emergency vehicles, and normal flow of traffic when possible.
What are the three operating zones?
- Area where rescue is taking place.
- Only personnel dealing directly with treating or freeing the victim(s) are allowed.
- Immediately out of hot zone.
- Area for personnel directly aiding rescuers in the hot zone.
- Contains personnel handling hydraulic power plants, providing emergency lighting, and firefighters on standby hoselines.
- Surrounding the warm and hot zones.
- Contains the command post, public information officer, staging for personnel and equipment.
- Outer boundary is cordoned off from the public.
What are the procedures for evacuation?
- May be taken or go to an area of refuge or a home of a friend or family.
- May require the use of churches, schools, auditoriums, municipal buildings, or motels/hotels.
- Cooperation of the previously mentioned facilities should be gained during pre-incident planning. Use of Red Cross and similar organizations can also be useful.
How should bystanders, relatives, and friends of victims be handled?
- Bystanders should be restrained from getting to close.
- Treat relatives and friends of victims gently but firmly restrained from getting too close and kept some distance from the scene, but within the cordoned area.
When should a Release of Liability form be used?
- For anyone who refuses treatment or transportation.
What are the reasons for controlling uninjured persons at a rescue scene?
- To keep from wandering the scene.
- To keep uninjured persons from getting injured.
- To provide a method of accounting for everyone involved in the incident.
- To obtain information of those involved in the incident.
- To separate witnesses from each other and influencing each other's stories.
When is it best to abandon rather than retrieve a piece of equipment?
- When the rescue scene is too unstable and retrieving the equipment would put personnel at risk.
- The cost of equipment may be recovered from the owner of the property.
What are the basic steps for releasing control of the scene back to the owner or responsible party?
- The owner or responsible party should be escorted on a tour of the scene and be given an explanation of any remaining hazards.
- If the scene is to hazardous to leave unattended, the owner may be required to post a security guard or erect a security fence around the hazard.