This is the midterm exam for GTECH 201 and here are the rules for sitting the exam:

  1. Write your full name right here:
  2. Make sure that you save regularly. “Lost files” are not an accepted excuse
  3. In the following multiple choice questions, mark what you believe is the correct answer by replacing the checkbox ‘□’with a capital ‘X
  4. You submit this document as an email attachment to Jochen. Use your preferred email provider (Hunter, AOL, Yahoo, whatever) and send a copy to as well as to yourself. The latter is your only insurance in case I do not receive your submission! Make sure that your email inbox is not full because if you don’t have the copy of the original email then there is no way for you to resubmit.
  5. Again: save regularly
  6. Good luck!

  1. Typical false color images show the color red assigned to what portion of the electromagnetic spectrum?

□ / Ultraviolet
Thermal Infrared
  1. Which of the following image characteristics determine the smallest object that can be recognized?

□ / Scale
Spatial resolution
Spectral resolution
  1. What color is vegetation on a typical false color image?

□ / Red
  1. Which of the following statements is wrong?

□ / Data and programs are structurally the same; they are bits and bytes stored on a computer
Data are a special kind of program that other programs work with
We tell Unix to interpret data as programs by setting the ‘executable’ file permission
Data are what programs work with, what they act on or are applied to
All programs are data but not all data are programs
  1. The file permission 645 says

□ / Owner can read, write, and execute, group can write, world can read and execute
Owner can write and execute, group can read, world can read and write
Owner can read, write and execute, group can just read, and world can read and execute
Owner can read and write, group can read and execute, and world can write and execute
Owner can read and write, group can just read, and world can read and execute
  1. All of the following statements about programs are true except one. Which is the incorrect statement?

□ / Programs are instructions that tell the computer what to do
Programs can be written in plain English
Regardless of the programming language, programs are processed as a series of binary values (0’s and 1’s)
Programs can be interactive or run just by themselves
Ms Windows recognizes programs by the file extension (.exe, .com, .bat)
  1. All of the following are operating systems, except one. Which one does not fit here?

□ / Linux
MS Excel
MS Windows
  1. Windows XP is a multi-user operating system

□ / True
  1. Programs can be started from all of the following except

□ / Start menu
Quick launch bar
Task bar
Windows Explorer
  1. A lot of things can be found in a file folder or directory. What does not fit?

□ / Files
  1. Which of the following statements about files is incorrect?

□ / Files have a name and an extension
The file extension tells us and Windows the purpose or use of the file
File extensions typically have 3 characters but can have more
Files of the same name and extension cannot exist in the same directory
The file extension tells Unix the purpose or use of the file
  1. Which of the following statements about directories is incorrect?

□ / Directory names have to be unique
Directories can have directories, which can have directories
Directory paths describe how to access a file relative to one’s current location or to the root directory
Directories in a Windows path description are separated by a ‘\’ or backslash
Directory names can have special characters such as ‘.’ or ‘&’
  1. Pick the correct phrase to complete the sentence “A megabyte is…”

□ / One million bytes
One thousand kilobytes
Enough to store 1,000 average-length plain email messages
1,024 bytes
The size of a typical remotely-sensed image
  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

□ / The Internet is a network of computer networks
The Internet supports different protocols such as http, ftp, email
Internet addresses are hierarchically organized using backslashes just like directory paths
Domain names tell us about the purpose the same way that file extensions tell us about a file’s purpose
Domain names can be replaced by IP addresses
  1. To secure our geography website, you cannot set links to web pages outside the geography department from within your public_html directory

□ / True
  1. A measurement …

□ / Is number-based (measuring means being able to count units)
Is the recording of a score for an element or instance of a variable
Requires the use of raw variables
Always has a location and a timestamp
If well-conducted, describes the element completely
  1. A derived variable …

□ / Is not a measurement but a calculation
Is, by definition, secondary data
Is a measurement in relation to another
Can, or better, should not be used in conjunction with another derived variable
Is inferior to a raw variable because it is a measurement that has already been manipulated
  1. A tally of age groups among GTECH 201 students is …

□ / Nominal
  1. Measurements of tidal gauges are …

□ / Nominal
  1. A geographic data structure in its most elementary form consists of

□ / Points, lines, and polygons
Either raster or vector data
Geometries and a reference system that links these geometries to points on the Earth’s surface
Matrix (spreadsheet) of rows of records with spatial, temporal, and other attributes
  1. In MS Excel, the intersection between a row and a column is called

□ / Data
A field
A cell
An equation
A pixel
  1. All of the following statements are true, except one. Pick the wrong answer.

□ / A spatial reference is another word for a x,y or x,y,z coordinate
A spatial reference can be explicit or implicit (direct or indirect)
A spatial reference can be absolute or relative
A spatial reference tells us where on the Earth’s surface a particular geometry is referring to
A spatial reference links map coordinates with geographic coordinates
  1. There are three types of data found in a spreadsheet.

□ / Data, words, and numbers
Equations, data and numbers
Words, numbers and labels
Numbers, formulas and labels
Numbers, dates, and text
  1. All of the following statements are true, except one. Pick the wrong answer.

□ / Geostatistical data is based on a continuous model of space
Geostatistical data consists of samples taken at fixed locations
Geostatistical data is the results of statistical analysis and hence not truly measured data
Geostatistical data is point data, where the points are supposed to be representative for their neighbors
Geostatistical data assumes the applicability of Tobler’s First Law of Geography
  1. Pick the correct completion of the sentence starting with “A lattice …”

□ / Is a regular dissection of space
Can only be applied to polygon data
Consists of non-overlapping areas
Is a special kind of vector adapt for 3-dimensional objects
Describes the fill pattern of polygons on a map
  1. On a GIS map, how can geographic objects be represented? By

□ / Points
All of the above
  1. Raster data …

□ / Consists of many individual regularly spaced points that each are representative for their neighborhood
Is the result of interactive digitizing, either on-screen or using a digitizer
Is the preferred option to store geographic features with well-defined boundaries
Is good for minimal disk space usage because we don’t need to store each individual coordinate
Is the preferred option for GIS applications that deal with man-made rather than natural features
  1. In geography (as opposed to geographic information science), we are mainly concerned with

□ / Spatial modeling
Conceptual modeling
Logical data modeling
Physical data modeling
  1. The geo-relational principle …

□ / Describes the link between geographic and map data
Underlies all spatial relationships (e.g., adjacency, containment, intersection, etc.)
Forms the basis of most commercial database management systems
Links geographic locations with attributes describing what can be found at these locations
Says that ”everything is related to everything else, but things closer to each other in geographic space are also more closely related with respect to their attributes
  1. Pick the one correct completion among the following. “Geographic features …

□ / And map features are the same
Can be represented by different map features, which however must all be of the same geometry type
Can be represented by different map features of different geometry types
Have Cartesian coordinates
Must have a name
  1. Pick the wrong statement

□ / Metadata is data about data
Metadata is automatically created and maintained in ArcGIS
Metadata helps us to identify/understand data in old projects or data compiled by others
Metadata has many aspects and covers the whole range of spatial, temporal, and attribute components of geographic data
Metadata is that part of a dataset that cannot be trusted; e.g. the noise in GPS data is metadata
  1. A datum that is accurate for North America is likely to be accurate for Europe

□ / True
  1. All of the following statements are true about a datum, except one. Which one?

□ / A datum defines the origin of a geographic coordinate system
A datum specifies the location where the spheroid touches the earth's surface
A datum specifies which spheroid is being used
A datum specifies the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system
  1. Examine the map below. What type of surface is the map projection based on?

□ / Cone
  1. Suppose you wrap a cylinder around the earth so that it touches along the equator. Then, you project a light source through the globe onto the cylinder. Which of the following statements best describes the resulting map?

□ / The map will be accurate in the equatorial zone
The map will be accurate in the mid-latitude zone
The map will be accurate in the polar region
The map will not be accurate in any zone
  1. When you want to use a dataset that has an unknown spatial reference, you should try to track down the source of the data to find out what the coordinate system is

□ / True
  1. All the following statements are correct, except one. Pick the wrong sentence completion. “In surveying, …

□ / The goal is to determine locations near the surface of the earth
Positional accuracy is usually of higher importance than it is in geography
We use a combination of distance and angle from a known point to determine unknown locations
The common use of GPS has rendered the profession of surveyors obsolete
We face the challenge of linking local with regional and national surveys
  1. The use of instruments called digitizers has diminished because

□ / They proved to be hazardous with all the electrical currents constantly running through them
They are bulky and similarly unwieldy as globes
On-screen digitizing is far more comfortable
Scanners to their job now automatically
The manufacturers Calcomp and Summagraphics started a ruinous competition that killed the competition
  1. In georeferencing

□ / We locate coordinates for street addresses
We need at least four well-known points
We tell the computer which table coordinate is supposed to represent which real world coordinate
We use GPS to find our locations
Move reference points around until we have a somewhat decent fit with other data already loaded
  1. Point-mode digitizing

□ / Creates many redundant points
Is mainly used for capturing man-made phenomena
Is rarely used because every point has to be explicitly digitized, which is very tedious
Is more accurate because the person entering the data can immediately correct cartographic errors
Is inferior to stream-mode digitizing, where the computer generates most points intelligently
  1. Identify the wrong statement

□ / Scanning creates large amounts of “dumb data”
Scanned data has contains no geographic features
Scanned data can be useful as contextual background information
Scanner resolutions these days are good enough for most geographic applications
Scanning has all but replaced manual or interactive digitizing
  1. For proper 4-dimensional GPS reception, we need at least

□ / 1 satellite and high GDOP
2 satellites
3 satellites
4 satellites
5 satellites
  1. All but one of the following statements are correct. Pick the wrong one. “GPS receivers…

□ / Need either a good internal clock or the ability to read the current time from an Internet server
That cost less than $200 are hardly better than a compass
Have problems in mountains, tunnels and caves
Work only at daytime – atmospheric distortions are too big at night
Require a second unit at a base station to achieve sub-meter accuracy
  1. Unofficial secondary data

□ / Is unreliable
Is cheaper than official data
That comes from research reports is usually extremely well documented
Grows in market share on the national geodata market
Is by definition biased because there is always somebody, who paid for its creation
  1. All but one of the following statements are correct. Pick the wrong one. “A good source for geophysical data

□ / Is USGS
  1. Census data is a great geographic resource because

□ / US Census was instrumental in the invention of GIS
It is indexed by geographic location
It contains so many geographic variables
They hired so many geographers as full-time employees
It is a complete (100%) dataset

This completes this midterm exam. If you have time left, remember that you have two full hours), then I recommend that you rest for a minute or two and then go over the questions again to make sure that you interpreted the question correctly – even on second sight/thought.