7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 47— Trenton and Princeton

November 14, 2016

Focus: Turn to page 128 in your textbook. Read the box entitled, “Crossing the Delaware” and answer the question.


Student Objectives:

1. I will explain what was so surprising about Washington’s attacks on Trenton and Princeton.


-Read and Outline Chapter 4, Section 3 pgs. 132-134; complete Quiz Star 4.3 (due 11/15)

-Read and Outline Chapter 4, Section 4 pgs. 135-139; Complete Quiz Star 4.4 (due 11/17)

-Chapter 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 Test Friday 11/18



I. Trenton

A.  Rall vs. Washington

II. Princeton

A.  Cornwallis vs. Washington

Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Colonel Rall Trenton Hessians Princeton General Cornwallis

Hugh Mercer Christmas Night Delaware River “Victory or Death” Weather

By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who was in command of the Hessians at Trenton?

When did Washington cross the Delaware to attack Trenton?

Why were victories at Trenton and Princeton so important to the American cause?

What did Hugh Mercer do that was so brave?


Class 47— Trenton and Princeton

November 14, 2016

Trenton-Washington vs. Rall and the Hessians

·  Town on the Delaware River-commercial center including several mills along a creek

·  town had no walls and some of the Hessians urged Colonel Rall (in charge of the Hessians at Trenton)to fortify the town

·  “It never struck [Col. Rall] that the rebels might attack us, and therefore he had made no preparations against an attack. I must concede on the whole we had a poor opinion of the rebels, who previously had never successfully opposed us.”

·  Washington’s plans to keep the attack a secret is spoiled by British spies

·  Rall knows Washington might come

·  legend has it that the Washington was successful at Trenton because the Hessians were drunk/hung over from celebrating Christmas…this is FALSE!

·  Washington gets lucky because on Christmas night a winter storm hits Trenton. The Hessians relax, they have been on high alert for days, because they think nothing will happen in the storm. Nobody thought the rebels would attack in such weather. Combine this with Rall’s over-confidence, and it spells disaster for the Hessians.

·  The attack takes place a little after 8:00 A. M. The Hessians came under attack from all three different sides and were taken by surprise. The men in the outposts fight their way back to the center of the town, but it is no use. Washington achieved a huge victory, capturing 896 Hessians, killing 22, and wounding 83. They also captured several cannons and guns and ammunition. The Americans lose more men from being sick and starving than from the battle. They record only a few wounded from the battle however.

What was so “surprising” about Washington’s attack on Trenton

·  Washington crosses the Delaware River on Christmas night

·  Weather- “it blew a perfect hurricane” of snow, hail, rain, and sleet

·  “I can hardly believe that Washington would venture at this season of the year to pass the Delaware at Vessel’s ferry as the repassing it may on account of the Ice become difficult.”

·  Trenton and Princeton were supremely important, [in] destroying the illusion of British invincibility, making patriots of potential loyalists, and spoiling the Howes’ hopes for an end to the war and a start to a lasting reunion.”

Princeton-Washington vs. General Cornwallis and the British

·  extremely bloody battle as the “ground was frozen and all the blood which was shed remained on the surface.”

·  Hugh Mercer was a general in Washington’s army. During the battle of Princeton he fought very bravely. During the battle the British overwhelm his men who have no bayonets. The British charge with bayonets. Mercer’s horse gets hit, and then Mercer himself. As he went down he cried, “Retreat!” His men fell back but Mercer was caught. One of the British knock him in the head with the butt of his rifle. The British thought they had caught Washington. As the British gather around, one calls, “Call for Quarters….” Mercer replied, “I am no rebel.” He refused to surrender and with his last ounce of energy, lunged at the British troops with his sword. They bayoneted him many times.


7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 48— Valley Forge and Saratoga

November 15, 2016

Focus: Pretend you are George Washington. Write a letter to your wife, Martha, telling her about the Battles of Trenton and Princeton. Be sure to tell her:

a. Who the enemy is and where they are located.

b. How you and your men reached the enemy from your location in Pennsylvania.

c. What made your trip so dangerous?

d. The day of your attack.

e. The success you achieved.


Student Objectives:

1. I will determine why the Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the Revolution.

2. I will recount the hardships Washington’s troops endured at Valley Forge.

3. I will determine why Benedict Arnold turned from Patriot to traitor.


-Read and Outline Chapter 4, Section 4 pgs. 135-139; Complete Quiz Star 4.4 (due 11/17)

-Chapter 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 Test Friday 11/18



I. Saratoga

A. Turning Point

1. French aid

II. Valley Forge

A.  Conditions

B.  Baron Friedrich von Steuben

C.  The Marquis de Lafayette

III. Benedict Arnold-hero and traiter

Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Saratoga French Valley Forge Firecakes Baron Friedrich von Steuben

The Marquis de Lafayette

By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who helped train Washington’s troops at Valley Forge?

Where is Valley Forge?

Why is Saratoga considered the turning point of the war?

What did Benedict Arnold due to be considered an American hero early in the war? What caused him to turn?


Class 48— Valley Forge and Saratoga

November 15, 2016

The British are puzzled at the American victories and ask General Burgoyne to stop the Patriots. He draws up a plan to take the Hudson River Valley.

What prize do the British already have in their possession? (New York City,

thanks to General Howe.)

b. Why would taking the Hudson River Valley be such a strategic move?

·  Burgoyne envisioned cutting off New England by the junction of two armies marching toward one another along the Hudson from New York and Canada

·  Burgoyne’s use of Indians, French Canadians, and German auxiliaries alienated popular support because his advance seemed like a foreign invasion

c. What took place at the Battle of Saratoga that convinced the French that they

should become allies of the Americans?

·  Between 1/3 and a ½ of the British soldiers were wounded, killed, or taken prisoner

·  Burgoyne was surrounded and outnumbered, his army starving and under constant fire, so he surrendered

·  Convention of Saratoga (actual surrender)-permitted Burgoyne’s army to return to Britain on condition that it never serve again in America

·  It showed the French that the American cause was “win-able.” The U.S. took 6,000 British prisoners, a significant portion of Burgoyne’s army -- a major American victory!

o  French already considering an alliance-helped ensure French entry which turned the war into a global struggle in which the British resources were deflected into other places like Caribbean, the Mediterranean, India, and the Channel

·  One of the heroes of this battle is Benedict Arnold who rushed into the fight rallying the troops. A German soldier fired point blank at Arnold in the same knew in which he had been wounded at Quebec. The shot crippled Arnold for life, leaving one leg shorter than the other-he later betray his country.

Before French aid could reach America, Washington’s men had to endure many hardships during the winter of 1777-78.

Hardships of Valley Forge

a. Washington led his troops to Valley Forge after his defeats at Philadelphia and Germantown in eastern Pennsylvania.

b. Valley Forge is about 25 miles west of Philadelphia.

c. These winter months were very discouraging for the Continental Army.

d. 11,000 troops were quartered at Valley Forge.

e. They lived in crude log huts they built themselves.

f. The Continental Congress could not provide additional supplies to fulfill the men’s needs.

g. On December 23, 1777, Washington wrote: “We have this day no less than 2,873 men in

camp unfit for duty because they are barefooted and otherwise naked.”

h. The conditions include:

... bitter cold, causing frostbite

... inadequate -- even spoiled -- food (some with worms in it)

... they ate “firecakes” -- strips of dough made of flour and water

... soldiers weak from hunger and cold -- too weak to fight

... a smallpox epidemic

... lack of shoes, so rags are used -- they cut their feet on the ice

... lack of adequate clothing

... they sleep on cold, muddy floors, or on straw mattresses crawling with lice.

... discouragement and bitterness over the fact that those who lived in the

countryside enjoyed comfortable lives, the British in Philadelphia were living

happily, and the Congress seemed to ignore their request for supplies. Those around the camp were unfriendly to them, perhaps fearing that their livestock or food would be confiscated.

i. Some criticized Washington for keeping his troops there, but he held firm, hoping to

position himself for an attack on Philadelphia when the weather broke.

j. Only the most ardent Patriots endure the ordeal. They are encouraged by the

writings of Thomas Paine.

k. 3,000 soldiers die during this time.

Why do soldier’s stay at Valley Forge?

a. The words of Thomas Paine.

b. Their commitment to the cause.

c. Washington’s example.

d. The promise of French aid.

Key Europeans in the American Revolution

Baron Friedrich von Steuben A Prussian soldier who stayed at Valley Forge; helped Washington train the troops; taught them how to work as a unit, to advance, retreat, use their guns and their bayonets. He also made the officers drill their men, rather than the sergeant and told his officers to put the needs of his men ahead of his own. He ordered his interpreter to curse his troops in English whenever they needed discipline. The troops loved his sense of humor. Steubenville, Ohio, is named after him.

The Marquis de Lafayette This young French soldier was only 19 when he became an American general. He was one of the richest men in France, and yet still shared the hardships with the troops at Valley Forge. The men call him “the soldier’s friend.” He fought alongside Washington in Pennsylvania. He refused any payment for his work. He enthusiastically supported the American cause. Fayette County in names after him.

Benedict Arnold

a. Disappointed that Congress appointed younger men as generals before he became one.

b. Married Margaret Shippen, a society girl, and they lived extravagantly.

c. Accused of Tory leanings and using military personnel as his own servants.

d. A court-marital tribunal cleared him, but reprimanded him for using poor judgment.

e. He brooded over what he felt to be his country’s ingratitude and injustice.

f. Began a 16-month correspondence with the enemy.

g. While in command of West Point in 1780, he worked out a plan to surrender it

to the British.

h. British Major John Andre (executed) was carrying the message from Arnold to the British when he was captured. Finally, his treachery was exposed!

i. Arnold fled to British-held New York and became a brigadier-general in the

British Army.

j. He demanded 20,000 pounds for his losses in joining the British. He received


k.  He led British expeditions that burned Richmond, Virginia, and New London,


l. Received kindly in London by King George III.

m. Granted 13,400 acres in Canada, but it was useless to him.

n. Remained in Britain and was a merchant in the West Indies trade.

o.  His wife remained faithful to him throughout, and his four sons became

distinguished members of the British military.

p. Burdened with debt in his final day.

p.  Died in 1801.


7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 49— John Paul Jones

November 16, 2016

Focus: Pretend you are wintering with George Washington and the Continental Army at Valley Forge. Write a letter to a loved one informing them of the following:

a. at least 3 hardships you are dealing with

b. What you are doing to keep your spirits up

c. What training you have received and who is training you

d. How many soldiers die


Student Objectives:

1. I will recount the story behind the famous saying, “I have not yet begun to fight!”


-Read and Outline Chapter 4, Section 4 pgs. 135-139; Complete Quiz Star 4.4 (due 11/17)

-Chapter 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 Test Friday 11/18



I. John Paul

A. Early Career and mistakes

II. John Paul Jones

A.  Naval Hero

B.  Father of American Navy

Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

John Paul Jones John Betsy Alfred Providence Ranger

USS Bonhomme Richard HMS Serapis “I have not yet begun to fight!”

By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who is considered the father of the American Navy?

What did John Paul do to cause him to flee to America?

Where is John Paul Jones buried?

Why did John Paul Jones state, “I have not yet begun to fight!”?


Class 49— John Paul Jones

November 16, 2016

John Paul Jones-father of the American Navy

·  Born in Scotland in 1747, and named John Paul.

·  Joined the navy at age 12.

·  At age 22, was given command of the ship John. John Paul had a sailor

flogged and Paul was charged with murder.

·  He was later freed and at age 26 became captain of the ship Betsey, but his

crew mutinied and one member was killed. Paul was again accused of


·  He fled to America to avoid arrest, and he added “Jones” to his name.