Nutrients Study Guide


1.  Calorie: A unit of ______is called a calorie.

2.  3500 calories equal 1 pound of fat.

§  1 gram of protein yields ______calories.

§  1 gram of carbohydrates yields ______calories.

§  1 gram of fat yields ______calories.

3.  Caloric Intake: the number of ______a person takes in from ______and beverages.

4.  Protein: A nutrient that is needed for ______and to ______and ______body tissue.

5.  Provides ______when carbohydrates and fats are lacking in the diet.

6.  Made up of smaller chemical units called ______.

7.  Complete Protein: contains all the ______amino acids.

8.  Incomplete Protein: from ______sources that does not contain all the ______l amino acids.

9.  Amino Acids: the ______that make up a protein.

·  Your body needs ______amino acids to function properly.

·  ______out of 20 amino acids are produced by your ______.

·  ______out of 20 amino acids must come from ______sources.

10. For teens 14-18 who get less than 30 minutes per day of exercise: Girls need ______ounces per day. Boys need ______ounces per day.

11. Carbohydrates: A nutrient that is the main source of ______.

12. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into ______to obtain energy

13. Sugars are called ______.

14. Starches are called ______.

15. Examples: Includes ______, starches, and ______.

16. Excess carbs are stored as ______.

17. Simple Carbohydrates: ______that enter the bloodstream rapidly and provide quick ______.

·  Digested/enters ______rapidly

·  Provides calories, but very few ______and minerals

·  “Empty ______”.

18. Complex Carbohydrates: provide ______energy. Ex: starches and ______.

·  More than ______sugars linked together.

·  Should be the body’s main source of ______intake.

19. A ______is a food substance that is made and stored in most ______.

·  Provides long-lasting ______.

20. When broken down in the mouth by ______and digestive juices, these complex ______are converted into ______.

21. Glucose is used by ______to provide ______and ______to the body.

22. Remaining glucose is converted into ______to be stored in ______tissue in order to be utilized later on for energy.

23. Fiber: Cannot be ______.

·  Helps move food through the ______system.

24. 2 types: Soluble and ______.

25. Soluble: Reduces levels of ______. Examples: Oatmeal, ______, and barley.

26. Insoluble: Binds with ______to help produce bowel movements

·  Reduces risk of ______cancer

·  Examples: Wheat products, leafy ______, fruits.

27. Fats: A nutrient that provides ______and helps the body store and use ______.

28. Nutrient largely made up of ______acids.

29. Provide a valuable source of ______.

30. Saturated fats are found primarily in ______-based foods.

31. Unsaturated fats are found in ______-based foods

32. Trans fats are created by a process known as ______.

33. Cholesterol is found in foods from ______sources.

34. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that Americans: Consume less than ______of calories from ______fats.

35. Replace ______fats with oils when possible.

36. Limit foods that contain synthetic sources of ______ (such as hydrogenated oils), and keep total trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.

37. Eat fewer than ______mg of dietary cholesterol per day.

38. Fat intake should not EXCEED ______of daily caloric intake.

39. Saturated Fat: found in ______products, solid vegetable fat, meat, and poultry.

·  Usually ______form at room temperature.

40. Cholesterol is found in every ______of the body and has important natural functions. It is manufactured by the ______but can also be taken in from food. It is ______and fat-like in appearance.

41. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL - cholesterol carried by this type is known as ______cholesterol).

42. High-density lipoprotein (HDL - cholesterol carried by this type is known as ______cholesterol).

43. Unsaturated Fat: fat found in ______products and ______.

·  Usually liquid form at room temperature.

·  Two kinds: ______- sunflower, corn, and soybean oils. ______- olive and canola oils.

44. Trans-Fatty Acids: are formed when ______oils are processed into solid ______such as margarine or shortening.

45. Hydrogenation : process of converting ______oils into solid fats

46. Vitamins: Helps the body use its sources of ______but does not directly provide ______.

47. Necessary for normal ______and development.

48. Help regulate various ______processes.

49. Help the body release the ______from other nutrients.

50. Two Types:

·  Fat-soluble: Dissolves in ______and can be stored in the body.

·  Vitamin A

·  Vitamin D

·  Vitamin E

·  Vitamin K

·  Water-soluble: Dissolves in ______and cannot be stored in the ______in significant amounts.

·  Vitamin C

·  Vitamin B Complex

51. Minerals: A chemical that ______chemical reactions in the body.

52. Essential in ______and ______.

53. Inorganic elements that come from the earth and are absorbed by ______.

54. Your body needs a total of ______different minerals.

55. Macro Minerals: Minerals needed in amounts ______than ______mg.

56. Micro-Minerals: Also known as ______minerals. Needed in ______amounts.

57. The major minerals are sodium, potassium______, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sulphur, cobolt and chlorine.

58. The trace minerals are ______, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, fluorine and chromium.

59. Water: Body weight is about ______of water.

60. Helps with ______removal.

61. Protects Your Tissues, Spinal Cord, and ______.

62. Individuals should drink ______to ______cups of fluids per day.

63. Dehydration: A condition in which ______content within the body falls to an extremely low level. Dizziness______, dry mouth, rapid pulse, infrequent urination.