Science Study Guide for Quiz on Scientific Method

Steps in the Scientific Method (know the order and be able to describe each step!)
1. Purpose
2. Research
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Analysis
6. Conclusion
Scientific Method
1 Purpose/Question
As a testable question based on prior observations and/or observation.
Example: Does the color of the light affect the growth of bean plants?
Affect = change
We look at how one thing causes the change
2 Research
Scientists research the best way to conduct an experiment and past information on their topic so they don't repeat mistakes from the past.
Have the most information possible so you can design the best experiment possible.
Check to see if anyone has already done this experiment
3 Hypothesis
An education end guess about what will happen
If _____(I do something), then ______(this will happen).
This can be right or wrong.
4 Experiment
Design an experiment to test to I see if your hypnosis is supported or not
Great experiment must be fair- only changing one variable at a time.
The experiment should be repeated (trials)
5 Analysis
Data tables and graphs are used to present and help make sense of data
Much easier to use numbers to prove you are correct
6 conclusion
Analysis our data to see if the hypothesis was supported.
Communicate the results and explain how you know if your hypothesis was supported or not
Explain what was learned from your experiment

Review the Shape Tracers Experiment Lab
Purpose: which shape, a circle, square, or star is the easiest to trace when looking through a mirror.
Research:
Star 10 points, 5 lines
Square 4 sides, 4 points
Circle: round
Hypothesis: If I trace the (star, circle, and square) through the mirror, then the (star, circle, and square) will be the easiest to trace.
Experiment Design:
Independent Variable: the type of shape
Dependent Variable: The time it takes to trace it and the number of mistakes
Controlled variable: the size of the mirror, the writing, the color of the paper, position of the mirror, the size of the shape, the width of the shape for tracing, the size of the tunnel, the same amount of light, the same surface

Example from class work called Practice with Scientific Variables
(refer to my webpage for the correct answers to the other questions)

1. Lauren wanted to know if plants grow faster in warmer temperatures. She got 40 identical plants that were all 5 inches tall. She planted them all in identical pots with 1 cup of soil. She put 20 of them in a room that was 65F. She put 20 of them in a room that was 85F. Both rooms were the same size and had the same number of windows. She gave all the plants 10mL of water every day. She continued this for every plant for two weeks. At the end of two weeks she measured the height of the plants. She found that the average height of the plants in the 65F room was 10in. She found that the average height of the plants in the 85F room was 13in. She concluded that warmer temperatures make plants grow faster.

Independent Variable: Temperature
Dependent Variable: Height of plants
Controlled Variable: Same pots, same soil, same amount of soil, same amount of sunlight (windows), same size room, same amount of water, same plants
What is science?
Science is an objective, self-correcting, method for gathering and organizing information about the natural world through observation and experimentation.
*Self-correcting means correcting itself or oneself without external factors.
Remember don't let your beliefs and expectations get in the way of what you are observing.
Don't be limited!
Discover something new!
Controlled observations means you are controlling ONE variable (time, liquid, sunlight, etc)
Types of Observations
When you make observations you use your five senses
Qualitative observations: use your senses to observe the results (sight, smell, touch, taste, and hear)

Qualitative means relating to, measured by the quality.
Example: The fan is moving and blowing air. Hear pencils writing.
Quantitative Observations: are made with instruments such, as rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, and thermometers. These results are measureable and involve numbers.

Quantitative means relating to measured by the quantity
Example: There are 15 tables in the classroom. There are 16 lights on the ceiling.
Think about your pet rock. It was easier to find YOUR rock based on the quantitative data. Remember details matter to you and to someone reading your data/work. Scientist have to be able to repeat it.
9/6
Independent and dependent variables
(based on class worksheet)
1. Olivia had more than one variables since she added worms to the plants that got coffee water.
2. Daniel doesn't know if all the plants with water coffee is helping them grow more since there is nothing to compare it to.
3 Julia is changing two variables with nothing to compare it to. She doesn't have plants with water. She also has plants in the closet which is adding another factor.
Variables: any factor or condition that can be controlled or changed during a science experiment.
Independent variable: the ONE variable scientist change to observe what happens and answer his/her questions. The scientist changes this on purpose.
Dependent variable: the factors that are being observed and/or measured by the scientist. This is what the scientist watches to see if there is a response to the independent variable. (DATA) (MORE THAN ONE)
Controlled variable: the factors that a scientist wants to remain constant. There are usually many controlled variables. If these variables are not kept constant the scientist will now know if the independent variable caused the change.
Experiment is a competition! We want the experiment fair like same amount of soil, water, sunlight etc.
Bad Example boys and girls race except boys wear high heels and girls wear new Nike shoes
Good example boys and girl wear the same shoes, on the same day, in the same environment.
Independent variable: Types of music
Dependent variable: observing the height of the beam plants, width of the leaves
Controlled variable: amount of beans, type of bean plant, types of soil, amount of soil, how long the music is played for, the volume of the music, amount of water and sunlight,