Chapter 3.3 – The Middle Colonies and America’s Growth 1760, pp. 85-89

Pre-Reading: Be sure to read, “If you were there…,” and “Building Background.” Skim the margin notes, maps and graphics.

As you read and respond to the questions below, be sure to define and explain the importance of the following key terms & people: Peter Stuyvesant, diverse, Huguenots, Quakers, William Penn, staple crops

Peter Stuyvesant- Dutch; Director General of New Amsterdam- surrendered to the British

Diverse – varying in ethnicity, language, customs, religion, etc.

Huguenots – French Protestants; persecuted in Catholic France

Quakers- The Society of Friends; large religious group founded Pennsylvania; did not practice formal religions

William Penn- Founded Pennsylvania; Quaker; Practiced Religious Toleration

Staple crops- Crops that are always needed; examples- wheat; barley and oats

1.  What colony did the Dutch found? Where was New Amsterdam located? New Netherlands; Manhattan Island

2. How did New Netherlands become New York? What was New Amsterdam renamed? Duke of York sent the British fleet to attack/take over the colony that divided the English colonies; Stuyvestant surrendered without a shot fired at the sight of the British fleet. The Dutch colonists living in New York were allowed to remain and keep their lands; New Amsterdam was renamed New York City. The New York colony had a diverse population due to generous Dutch land grants to members of various religious groups;

3. Who founded New Jersey, and why? What was its population like? The Duke of York gave land to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley to create the colony of New Jersey (they were proprietors); its diverse population included Dutch, Sweded, Finns and Scots.

4. What led to the diversity of population in New York and New Jersey? Religious tolerance and large land grants to residents of different counties

5. Describe the beliefs of the Quakers. Why do you think those beliefs led to their persecution in England and the colonies? disliked formal religious practices and services, dressed plainly, believed in the equality of men and women before God; supported nonviolence (pacifism) and religious toleration for all; they’re beliefs contradicted social norms of the day and angered the nobility (didn’t like the idea of equality) and were sometimes seen as disloyal for refusing to fight in wars

6. Why did William Penn establish a colony? What did he name it? To provide a safe place (refuge) for Quakers and religious tolerance; Pennsylvania (Penn + sylvan: forested); King Charles II gave Penn the land to repay a debt the king owed Penn’s father

7. William Penn limited his own power and established an elected assembly in government. His work made

Pennsylvania an important example of representative self-government - a government that reflects its citizens’ will. What else

did Penn contribute? Made a peaceful treaty with Native American tribes for land, wrote a constitution, planned Philadelphia’s


8. What’s the capital of Penn’s colony? What does it mean? Philadelphia – City of Brotherly Love (Ancient Greek)

9. According to the Biography of William Penn, what beliefs did he have and put into practice? Fair dealings with Native

Americans, welcomed immigrants (advertised his colony throughout Europe), and promised religious toleration

10. How did Delaware begin? Penn bought more land from the Duke of York; Originally known as the “Three Lower Counties”

Pennsylvania until it became a separate colony

11. Quick Facts, p. 86: List the characteristics of the Middle Colonies. Diverse population, staple crops, used slaves and endentured

servants, traded with British and British colonies in the West Indies

12. Describe the geography and economy of the middle colonies. How does that compare to the New England & Southern colonies?

Combined characteristics of both; good climate, rich land, ports; grew cash crops of staple crops like wheat and traded that

wheat to England; trade was very important to the colonies

13. What are staple crops? List examples. Crops that are always needed: wheat, corn, barley, oats

14. Who filled the large growing labor needs in the middle colonies? What type of activities did they undertake? some slaves, but mostly indentured servants; skilled labor such as carpenters, blacksmiths, shipbuilding, worked on farms or ships

15. Why do you think the Middle Colonies had more indentured servants than slaves? Didn’t grow cash crops like tobacco, rice and indigo that required large labor force; required more skilled labor (trained in skills through apprenticeships)

16. Describe the roles of women in the colonies. Ran farms and small businesses, practiced medicine working as nurses and midwives, but laws limited economic opportunities

History and Geography

17. What cities were the largest during this time period? Philadelphia and New York City

18. How did mountains and seas influence the location of the colonies? Immigrants arrived in North America by boat and landed on the East Coast, most settled on the coast; Appalachian Mts. were a barrier to westward movement – formed the western border of the English colonies

19. What percentage of colonists were Protestant? 92

20. Name the three cities with natural harbors. Boston, New York City and Philadelphia