24º Technical Consultation among ORPF, August 2012
DISCUSSION PAPER ABOUT “PEST PRESENT OF DOMESTIC IMPORTANCE/PEST OF NATIONAL CONCERN
To date, the scope of theIPPC hasincluded the development of international standards and activitiesrelated primarily toregulated pests, ie those quarantine pests orregulated non-quarantinepeststhat are regulatedbythephytosanitary import requirementsafter makingthecorresondingpest riskanalysis.
However, countries face different situationsregardingother pestswhichoften have greateconomic, socialor productive impact in differentparts of the country. For instance locusts and Asian soybean rust.
As mentionedin the IPPC, the current world situation"encourages the intensificationof the threatof plant pests toplant resources, which is one ofthe main problemsfaced by farmers..." And taking into accountonly a perspective from the pointof viewof international trade.However,within countries,the threatto plant resourcesusuallyinvolvepeststhat are not relevant in international trade,but can seriously affectbothfood securityandsustainabilityof the production system
Approvalduring 2012of a new IPPC Strategic Frameworkhas expanded itsgoals with thevision of protecting globalplant resourcesfrom pests. Fourstrategic objectives have been established, that lead tofulfilling the missionof the Convention.
Thefirst,"to protectsustainable agriculture andenhanceglobal food securitythrough the prevention of pest spread" refers specifically tothe general protectionof agriculture,inthe sense that"becoming increasingly national and international interestthe broader issuesof agro-ecosystems"
Thecountriesthat implementactionsto mitigatethe effects ofwhat might be calledpestsof national concern, lead to the implementation ofdomestic regulations(of domestic application only) who demandgreat economic, technicaland logistical efforts.
These pestscause significantcrop losses, their management or control;goes beyond farmer’s level orcontroltechnologies arenot accessibleat that level. Thus, there is a need toachieve a sustainable pest management, requiring the involvementof Organizations, which in theframeworkof the IPPC, are theNPPO.These pestsaremostly notsubject tophytosanitary regulationsin international trade, that is, they are not spreadthroughplant products.
There are alsoa significant number ofpestsofstored plant products, which consequences can affectinternational tradeby generatingtoxins (mycotoxins) oraffectingproduct quality(management ofstored grainarthropods) and requireactionsof theNPPOs.
The scenariodescribedreinforces theneed fornew elements of internationalcooperation to strengthnational capacitiesto address national phytosanitary issues of high impactin affected countries.
It should be noted in this regard,references in the Convention text regarding that mentioned above:
The contracting parties,
- recognizing the necessity for international cooperation in controlling pests of plants and plant products and in preventing their international spread, and especially their introduction into endangered areas;
ARTICLE VIII: International cooperation
1. The contracting parties shall cooperate with one another to the fullest practicable extent in achieving the aims of this Convention, and shall in particular:
(b) participate, in so far as is practicable, in any special campaigns for combatting pests that may seriously threaten crop production and need international action to meet the emergencies;
Thus,it isof great importanceto beginactions at international level regarding pests of national concern.
In thissense, some ofthe activities that couldbe analyzedfor implementationare:
- Bilateral/ multilateralcooperation for planning, execution, control and management ofcontrol programs for pestsof national concern.
- Bilateral/multilateral cooperation for resource mobilizationfor the execution ofcontrol programs forpestsof national concern.
- Conformation of anExpert WorkingGroupto identifymodes of actiononthis issue in thescope of the IPPC.
- Conformation ofa module within the framework of IPPC Capacity Development activities to implementad-hocactivitiesand those underthe EWG proposal.
It should be noted that activities to be conducted in relation to pests of national concern, under any circumstances will imply that they are regulated pests under IPPC and therefore they cannot be regulated in international trade by IPPC members.