CV - Dr. M. Afzal Ghauri, NIBGE, Faisalabad

CV - Dr. M. Afzal Ghauri, NIBGE, Faisalabad

CV - Dr. M. Afzal Ghauri, NIBGE, Faisalabad

Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Muhammad Afzal GhauriDeputy Chief Scientist

Head Industrial Biotechnology Division

Incharge,University Cell andComputer Control Maintenance Laboratory

National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering P. O. Box 577, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Tel:(+92-41) 2550814Fax:(+92-41) 2651472

Electronic Mail:

Date of Birth1stJuly 1961

DomicileRawalpindi, Punjab


Marital StatusMarried with two kids (one daughter and one son)

Post-Doctorate 2002-2003, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Leicester, U.K.

Ph.D.1991, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Wales (Bangor), U.K.

M.Sc.1985, Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

B.Sc.1982, Zoology, Chemistry, Psychology, Gordon College Rawalpindi, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

F.Sc.1979, Pre-Medical, Government College Nowshera, Peshawar Board, Pakistan.

Matriculation1977, Science, Government High School No. 1, Nowshera, Peshawar Board, Pakistan.

1Recipient of Research Productivity Allowance(RPA)awarded to Productive Scientists of Pakistan by Pakistan Council of Science and Technology, Islamabadin the years 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013.

2One year competitive Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leicester, United Kingdom in the area of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan awarded this fellowship on National Merit basis in the above said area (2002-2003).

3A competitive postgraduate scholarship was awarded by Ministry of Science and Technology leading to Ph.D. in the area of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (1987-1991).

4A Roll of Honour was presented by the Gordon College Rawalpindi in acknowledgment to my outstanding performance in B.Sc. examination (1982).

5A scholarship was awarded in Anglo-Vernacular Middle Standard Examination by Education Department, Peshawar, Pakistan (1975).

1The International Society For Extremophiles, Japan

2Life Time Member of Biotechnology Society of Pakistan (BSP-LM-04).

3Pakistan Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

4Zoological Society of Pakistan

1Currently, I am working as Deputy Chief Scientist and Head of Industrial Biotechnology Division of National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan. I joined this institute on February 10, 1993 as Senior Scientific Officer. NIBGE is an organisation of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. My current areas of research interest are:

Biotechnology of Extremophiles

Bacterial Biodiversity and Systematics


Gene Mining of Extreme Environments

Bioresource Development for Industry

My professional duties also include technical and administrative assistance to other research groups in Industrial Biotechnology Division viz., bioprocessing of ores and fossil fuels, systems biology of prebiotics, industrial enzymes, fermentation technology, bioenergy and nanobiotechnology. We also extend our expertise in designing of bioprocesses and consultancy services to other professional and commercial organizations/industries for quality control. Moreover, in this connection, technical and analytical services are provided to various government and private organizations.

2Incharge University Cell, NIBGE for coordination with QAU and PIEAS for M.Phil.Ph.D. degrees.

3Expert Selection Board of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan for Biotechnology.

4Expert Selection Board of Government College University, Faisalabad for Applied Chemistry.

5Member of Board of Studies of Zoology Department, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

6Member of Advisory Board ofPunjab University Journal of Zoology (ISSN-0079-8045).

7Member of Board of Studies of NIBGE-PIEAS for the award of M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees.

8One year competitive Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leicester, United Kingdom in the area of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The research focus was on phylogenetic analysis of microorganisms on the basis of 16S rDNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, amplification and cloning of mobile genetic elements, commonly called as integrons, from various microbial groups and environments were carried out. Integrons can capture environmental gene cassettes and can be used as gene mining tools prior to gene sequence knowledge. During this period, about 60 gene sequences were deposited to GenBank, USA as public domain bioresource material.

9Convener NIBGE Exhibition Committee.

10Convener NIBGE House Allotment Committee.

11Member of National Curriculum Revision Committee for universities (Zoology) under Higher Education Commission.

12Member of list of Supervisors identified by Higher Education Commission for Ph.D. programme.

13Faculty Member of NIBGE for Postgraduate Studies in Biotechnology leading to M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees.

14Act as External Examiner for M.Sc./M.Phil./Ph.D. Examinations at University of the Punjab, Lahore, and University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

15Member of Panel of Paper Setters for M.Sc./M.Phil. Examinations at University of the Punjab, Lahore, and University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir,Pakistan.

16Act as External Examiner for B.Sc.(Hons)/M.Sc. Examinations at Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

17Member of Panel of Paper Setters for B.Sc.(Hons)/M.Sc. Examinations at Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

18Faculty Member of Demonstrators at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom during Ph.D. studies (1987-1991).

19Second Position in Punjab Province in the competition for the post of Lecturer in Zoology through Punjab Public Service Commission. But I could not join this post as I was heading abroad for my Ph.D. studies at University of Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom.

20Research Scholar at Centre for Advanced Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan from April, 1986 to May, 1987.

  1. Fozia Anjum Biomineralization of black shale using indigenous microbes. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Completed 2010).
  1. Sadia Ilyas Bioleaching of metals from ores and electronic scrap. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Completed 2010).
  1. Noreen AzharMolecular studies and bioinformatic analysis of industrially important protease coding genes in metagenomic extracts and pure isolates from extreme environmant. ICGEB, Italy PhD scholar, University of Peshawar (Completed 2012).
  1. Nasrin AkhtarBiodesulfurization of fossil fuels by organic sulfur metabolizing bacteria. Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad (Thesis Submitted).
  1. Shazia KhaliqMolecular studies for regulation and over expression of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702.Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad (Thesis Submitted).

6. Rizwan Haider Biosolubilization and biogasification of indigenous low rank coal for its applications. HEC scholar, M.Phil. leading to PhD degree programme, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad (Thesis Submitted).

7.Ijaz BanoBiotechnological manipulations of chitosan for biomedical applications. HEC scholar,PIEAS, Islamabad, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad(in progress).

  1. Aamira IqbalCulture-dependent recovery of integron linked genes from extremophilic microorganisms. M.Phil. thesis 2004,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad.
  1. Nasrin Akhtar Microbial biodiversity of Khewra salt mine as determined by 16S rDNA analysis. M.Phil. thesis 2004,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.
  1. Sabahat LatifDiversity of integron associated gene cassettes in acidophiles determined by 59 base element primer sets. M.Phil. thesis 2005,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.
  1. Ammara Sajjad Recovery of integrons from manmade and natural environments. M.Phil. thesis 2006,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

5 Kokab QayyumBioprocessing of Waziristan chalcopyrite ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic acidophiles. M.Phil. thesis 2006,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

6 Farah MajeedEffect of pH on electrochemical characterization of Tylosin-DNA interaction. M.Phil. thesis 2007,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

7 Maria SaharProduction and characterization of protease from locally isolated extremophilic Bacillus clausii (ALK-7). M.Phil. thesis 2007,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

8 Nosheen Rasheed Optimization of process parameters for tylosin production using solid state fermentation by wild type Streptomyces fradiae NRRL–270 and its gamma irradiated mutant. M.Phil. thesis 2007,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

9Muhammad Ilyas Study of the integron profile of some industrially important bacteria. M.Phil. thesis 2008,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

10Ghulam Mustafa Isolation and characterization of protease gene from local alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii strain ALK-7. M.Phil. thesis 2008, Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad.

11Mamoona ArshadStudies on the production of statins by local filamentous fungi. M.Phil. thesis 2008,Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

12Ijaz BanoStudies on genetics of metal tolerance in acidophilic bacteria. M.Phil. thesis 2009, Quaid-i-Azam University, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

13Arshia MushtaqIsolation and characterization of antimicrobial agents producing local isolates of streptomyces. M.Phil. thesis 2012, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, NIBGE Campus,Faisalabad.

14Sara Butt Isolation and characterization of iron oxidase from Acidithibacillus ferrooxidans.MS thesis2012, GC University, Faisalabad.

15Attia IramCharacterization of Punjab coals and their potential for microbial methanogenesis. M.Phil. thesis 2013, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, NIBGE Campus, Faisalabad.


United KingdomPh.D. Degree Studies04-10-1987 to 09-11-1991

Portugal (From UK)To attend IBS-199108-09-1991 to12-09-1991

United KingdomPostdoctoral Research31-01-2002 to30-01-2003

Italy (From UK)To attend Extremophiles 200221-09-2002 to27-09-2002

GermanyTo attend IBS-200701-09-2007 to08-09-2007

  1. NIBGE-COMSTECH (CPC), International Workshop on Advanced Techniques in Biotechnology (January 5-17, 2004), NIBGE, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  1. Five Days Workshop on LCMS, GCMS & AAS: The Powerful Techniques for the Analysis of Inorganic, Organic and Biomaterials (April 25-29, 2011), NIBGE, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  1. Two Day National Workshop on “Bioclean Coal Technologies:A Step Towards the Use of Indigenous Resources of Coal”(November 7-8, 2012), NIBGE, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Writing Urdu poetry, reading Urdu and English literature, photography, playing table tennis and badminton.

Citations given below against each publication have been taken from following links:

ISI Web of Science(

Science Direct(

Google Scholar (

1Ghauri, M. A. 1991. A study of the diversity of acidophilic bacteria. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales, (now University of Bangor), United Kingdom. (Citations 4)

2Ghauri, M. A. and Johnson, D. B.* 1991. Physiological diversity amongst some moderately thermophilic iron-oxidising bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 85:327-334. (Impact Factor 3.563, Citations 32)

3Johnson, D. B.*, Ghauri, M. A. and Said, M. F. 1992. Isolation and characterization of an acidophilic, heterotrophic bacterium capable of oxidizing ferrous iron. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:5,1423-1428. (Impact Factor 3.678, Citations 46)

4Johnson, D. B.*, Ghauri, M. A. and McGinness, S. 1993. Biogeochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in leaching environments. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 11:63-70. (Impact Factor 13.231, Citations 77)

5Ghauri, M. A.*, Iqbal, M., Anwar, M. A. and Khalid, A. M. 1999. Isolation and characterisation of alkalophilic bacteria from diverse habitats of Pakistan. Resource and Environ. Biotech. 2:283-294.(Citations 0)

6Ghauri, M. A.*, Iqbal, M., Anwar, M. A. and Khalid, A. M. 2000. Bacterial profile of a sandstone uranium heap set for bioleaching studies. Resource and Environ. Biotech. 3:1-9.(Citations 0)

7Ahmad, Z., Ghauri, M. A., Anwar, M. A., Iqbal, M., Rehman, M., Akhtar, K. and Khalid, A. M.* 2002. Transformation of plasmids of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoding ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli strain DH5- for detecting copper tolerance genes on such plasmids. Resource and Environ. Biotech. 3:185-191.(Citations 5)

8Ghauri, M. A., Khalid, A. M., Grant, S., Heaphy, S. and Grant, W. D.* 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of different isolates of Sulfobacillus spp. isolated from uranium rich environments and recovery of genes using integron specific primers. Extremophiles 7:5, 341-345. (Impact Factor 2.203, Citations 18)

9Rauf, S., Gooding, J. J., Akhtar, K., Ghauri, M. A., Rahman, M., Anwar, M. A. and Khalid, A. M.* 2005. Electrochemical approach of anticancer drugs-DNA interaction. Journal ofPharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 37(2) 205-217. (Impact Factor 2.947, Citations 145)

10Akbar, T., Akhtar,K., Ghauri, M. A., Anwar. M. A., Rehman, M., Rehman, M., Zafar, Y. and Khalid, A. M.* 2005. Relationship among acidophilic bacteria from diverse environments as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). World J. Microbiol. Biotech. 21:645-648.(Impact Factor 1.262, Citations 4)

11*Rauf, S., Ihsan, A., Akhtar, K., Ghauri, M.A., Rahman, M., Anwar, M.A. and Khalid, A.M.* 2006. Glucose oxidase immobilization on a novel cellulose acetate-polymethylmethacrylate membrane. J. Biotech. 121: 351–360(Impact Factor 3.183, Citations 71)

* This paper has been awarded Rs. 50,000 cash prize by HEC in a national contest fortop quality papers published in the area of Biology

12Ghauri, M. A.*, Khalid, A. M., Grant, S., Grant, W. D., and Heaphy, S. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial isolates from man-made high pH, high salt environments and identification of gene-cassette associated ORFs. Current Microbiology 52-6:487-492 (Impact Factor 1.520, Citations 8)

13Ghauri, M A., Okibe, N. and Johnson, D. B.* 2007. Attachment of acidophilic bacteria to solid surfaces: the significance of species and strain variation. Hydrometallurgy 85, 2-4:72-80 (Impact Factor 2.169, Citations 54)

14Rauf, S., Nawaz, H., Akhtar, K., Ghauri, M. A. and Khalid, A. M.* 2007. Studies on sildenafil citrate (viagra) interaction with DNA using electrochemical DNA biosensor. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 22:2471-2477(Impact Factor 5.437, Citations 19)

15Ilyas, S., Anwar, M. A., Niazi, S. B. and Ghauri, M. A. 2007. Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap by moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria. Hydrometallurgy 88:180-188 (Impact Factor 2.169, Citations 69)

16Munawar N., Anwar, M. A., Saleem, M., Ghauri, M. A.*and Akhtar, K. A. 2007. Biodepyritization of indigenous coal using acidophilic, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 39 (3)147-151. (Impact Factor 0.309, Citations 3)

17Akhtar, N., Ghauri, M.A.*, Iqbal,A., Anwar, M. A. and Akhtar, K. 2008. Biodiversity and phylogenetic analysis of culturable bacteria indigenous to Khewra salt mine of Pakistan and their industrial importance.Braz. J. Microbiol. 39:143-150.(Impact Factor 0.762, Citations 7)

18llyas, S., Anwar, M. A, Niazi, S. B., Ghauri, M. A., Ahmad, B. and Khan, K. M. 2008. Bioleaching of Pb-Zn ore by moderate thermophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria. Journal Of The Chemical Society Of Pakistan30(1):61-68.(Citations 4)

19Zafar, M. N., Abbas, I., Nadeem R., Sheikh, M. A. and Ghauri, M. A. 2009. Removal of nickel onto alkali treated rice bran. Water Air Soil Poll. 197:361-370.(Impact Factor 1.748, Citations 9)

20Rehman, M., Anwar, M. A., Iqbal, M., Akhtar, K., Khalid, A. M. and Ghauri, M. A.* 2009. Bioleaching of high grade Pb-Zn ore by mesophilic and moderately thermophilic iron and sulphur oxidizers. Hydrometallurgy 97:1-7. (Impact Factor 2.169, Citations 7)

21Akhtar, K.*, Khalid, A. M., Akhtar, M. W. and Ghauri, M. A.2009.Removal and recovery ofuranium from aqueous solutions by Ca-alginate immobilized Trichoderma harzianum.Bioresource Technology100:4551-4558 (Impact Factor 4.750, Citations 40)

22Ghauri, M. A.*, Anwar, M. A., Akhtar, N., Haider, R. and Tawab, A. 2009. Status of coal biotechnology in Pakistan. Advanced Materials Research 71-73:513-516(Citations 1)

23Khaliq, S., Akhtar, K.*, Ghauri, M. A., Iqbal, R., Khalid, A. M. and Muddassar, M. 2009.Change in colony morphology and kinetics of tylosin production after UV and gamma irradiation mutagenesis of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702. Microbiological Research 164:469-477(Impact Factor 1.993, Citations 11)

24Khaliq, S., Rashid, N., Akhtar, K.* and Ghauri, M. A.*2009. Production of tylosin in solid state fermentation by Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702and its gamma irradiated mutant (γ-1). Letters in Applied Microbiology 49:635-640(Impact Factor 1.629, Citations 0)

25Anjum, F., Bhatti, H. N.*, Ghauri, M. A.and Asi, M. R. 2009. Bioleaching of copper, cobalt and zinc from black shale by Penicillium notatum. African J. Biotechnology 8(19): 5038-5045. (Citations 8)

26Akhtar, N., Ghauri, M. A.*, Anwar, M. A. and Akhtar, K. 2009. Analysis of the dibenzothiophene metabolic pathway in a newly isolated Rhodococcus spp. FEMS Microbiology Letters 301:95-102.Impact Factor 2.049, Citations 2)

27Ghauri, M. A.*, Grant, W. D. and Heaphy S. 2010. Metagenomic accessing of genes from environmental clone library from an oxidation tank of a waste treatment plant using 59-be conserved sequence specific primers. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 42(1):33-36.(Impact Factor 0.309, Citations 0)

28Anjum, F., Bhatti, H. N.* and Ghauri, M. A.2010. Enhanced bioleaching of metals from black shale using ultrasonics. Hydrometallurgy 100:122-128(Impact Factor 2.169, Citations12)

29Ilyas, S., Bhatti, H. N., Ruan, C.*, Ghauri, M. A. and Anwar, M. A. 2010. Column bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap. Hydrometallurgy101:135-140 (Impact Factor 2.169, Citations 26)

30Ilyas, S., Bhatti, H. N.*, Bhatti, I. A., Sheikh, M. A., and Ghauri, M. A. 2010. Bioleaching of metal ions from low grade sulphide ore: process optimization by using orthogonal experimental array design. African J. Biotechnology 9(19): 2801-2810.(Citations 5)

31Rehman, A., Majeed, M. I., Ihsan, A., Hussain, S. Z., Rehman, S., Ghauri, M. A., Khalid, Z. M. and Hussain, I.* 2011. Living fungal hyphae-templated porous gold microwires Using Nanoparticles as Building Blocks, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13:6747-6754(Impact Factor 2.175, Citations 7)

32Ilyas, S., Chi, R*., Bhatti, H. N., Bhatti, I. A., and Ghauri, M. A. 2012. Column bioleaching of low-grade mining ore containing high level of smithsonite, talc, sphaerocobaltite and azurite.Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 35:433-440(Impact Factor 1.869, Citations 2)

33Ashraf, S., Akhtar, N., Ghauri, M. A., Rajoka, M. I., Khalid, Z. M. and Hussain, I.* 2012. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity. Nanoscale Research Letters 7:267. (Impact Factor 2.524, Citations 0)

34Aftab, K., Akhtar, K.*, Jabbar, A., Rana, S. M., Samoor, Y. and Ghauri, M. A. 2012. Process optimization and mechanistic studies of lead (II):Aspergillus caespitosus interaction for industrial effluent treatment. African J. Biotechnology 11(95):16142-16157.(Citations 0)

35Haider, R., Ghauri, M. A.*, SanFilipo, J. R., Jones, E. J., Orem, W. H., Tatu, C. A., Akhtar, K. and Akhtar, N. 2013. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production. Fuel 104: 717–725. (Impact Factor 3.357, Citations 0)

36Ihsan, A. Hussain, I*, Khan, W. S.*, Rehman, A, Ghauri, M. A., and Cao, C. 2013. Facile synthesis of metallized nanocontainers for the entrapment and controlled release of hydrophobic compounds.Materials Letters95:78–81.(Impact Factor 2.224, Citations 0)

37Khaliq, S., Ghauri, M. A.* and Akhtar, K. 2013. Isolation, identification and optimization of fermentation parameters for improved production of antimicrobial compounds from indigenous Streptomyces isolates.African J. Microbiology Research7(18):1874-1887.(Citations 0)

38Zafar, M. N.*, Wahid, A., Ghauri, M. A.Zubair, M., Mumtaz, M. W., Anwar, F. andDanish, M. 2013. Trichoderma harzianum: a green sorbent for Pb(II) uptake fromaqueous solutions.Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry95(3):422–433. (Citations 0)

39Andleeb,S., Ghauri, M. A. and Qazi, J.I.*2013.Isolation of Malathion DegradingChromogenic

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains From Insecticide Impregnated Soils.Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 45(5):1447-1451.(Impact Factor 0.309, Citations 0)

40Khaliq, S., Ghauri, M. A.* and Akhtar, K.* 2013.Characterization of mutations in regulatory genes of Tyl cluster leading to over expression of tylosin in mutant γ-1 of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (In press) (Impact Factor 3.689, Citations 0)

1Robin, S. P., Ghauri, M. A., Jabeen, F., Riazuddin, S.* and Shams, F. A. 1987. Isolation and characterization of acidophilic bacteria from the local environment. PunjabUniv. J. Zool., 2:1-9. (Citations 0)

2Ghauri, M. A.*, Iqbal, M., Anwar, M. A., Shemsi, A. M., Akhtar, K. and Khalid, A. M. 1998. Iron oxidation at varied pH values by T. ferrooxidans - a potential bacterium in bioremediation processes. Biologia 44(1&2):95-100.(Citations 0)

3Ilyas, S., Anwar, M. A., Niazi, S. B., Ghauri, M. A. and Khalid, A. M. 2007. Microbial leaching of iron from pyrite by moderate thermophile chemolithotrophic bacteria. Journal of Research (Science) 18 (2):159-166. (Citations 3)

1Johnson, D. B.*, Said, M. F., Ghauri, M. A. and McGinness, S. 1990. Isolation of novel acidophiles and their potential use in bioleaching operations. In "Biohydrometallurgy 1989" ( Salley, J., McCready, R.G.L. and Wichlacz, P.L.eds. ) pp. 403-414. (Citations 6)

2Khalid, A. M., Ghauri, M. A., Anwar, M. A., Akhtar, K. Shemsi, A. M. Bhatti, T. M. and Iqbal, M. 1995. Role of biotechnology for minerals and fossil fuels in the sustainable development of Pakistan. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Biotechnology for Sustainable Development (Eds. K.A. Malik, A. Nasim and A.M. Khalid), held on Dec.15-20, 1993. pp. 309-318.

3Ghauri, M. A. and Akhtar, N. 2005. Microbial Biodiversity - Significance, Methods and Future Perspectives. In the proceedings of international conference on “Workshop on Biodiversity” held in Islamabad during December, 2005.

4Sajjad, A., Ghauri, M. A., Akhtar, N. and Akhtar, K. 2006. Recovery of integrons from manmade and natural environments. In: Proceedings of International Pakistan Congress of Zoology (Ahmad, M. and Shakoori, A.R. eds) held in Lahore during April, 2006, 26:19-28.

1Cheema, A.M.*, Ghauri, M.A., Islam, A. and Ali, M. 1988. Serum protein and its fractions in dwarf goat after long term feeding of different proportion of kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca). Proc. 8th Pakistan Congr. Zool. pp. 45-52.

2Anwar, M. A., Qamar, M. A., Akhtar, K., Ghauri, M. A. and Khalid, A. M.* 1995. Microbial demineralization of coal. In: Proceedings of Fifth National Chemistry Conference (Ahmad, N., Khan, A.Y., Jaffar, M., Subhani, M.S., Khan, N. And Ansari, F.L. eds), held on Oct. 25-28, 1993 hosted by Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. pp. 84-86.

3Ghauri, M. A., Anwar, M. A., Iqbal, M., Akhtar, K., Shemsi, A .M., Niaz, L. and Khalid, A. M. 1996. New frontiers of biotechnology for minerals and fossil fuels. In: Agricultural Biotechnology (Khan, I.A. and Malik, T.A. eds). Proceedings of First Biotechnology Symposium held at Centre for Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad on June 27, 1996. pp. 168-178.