Chapter 2; Section 1: Pages 26-34

Chapter 2; Section 1: Pages 26-34

Chapter 2; Section 1: Pages 26-34

  1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a(n) ______.
  2. The continual process by which new rock forms from old rock is called ______.
  3. Humans have used rocks throughout history for tools, weapons, and ______.
  4. Which of the following forces affects rock deep beneath Earth’s surface?
  5. Pressurec. Weathering
  6. Erosiond. Deposition
  7. Rock at the Earth’s surface is most affected by the forces of
  8. Heat and pressure
  9. Pressure only
  10. Weathering and erosion
  11. Cooling
  12. A rock deep underground is primarily affected by forces of
  13. Extreme heat and pressure
  14. Cooling
  15. Weathering and Erosion
  16. Heat only
  17. What kind of new material is formed when metamorphic rock melts?
  18. Igneous rockc. Metamorphic rock
  19. Sedimentary rockd. Magma
  20. What kind of new rock is formed when igneous rock is subjected to weathering, erosion compaction, and cementation?
  21. Magmac. Metamorphic rock
  22. Sedimentary rockd. Igneous rock
  23. What new kind of rock is formed when sedimentary rock is subjected to heat and pressure?
  24. Igneous rockc. Metamorphic rock
  25. Sedimentary rockd. Magma
  1. Magma in the Earth’s crust that

has risen to the surface and cools

and solidifies

  1. Rock that is forced downward

& is exposed to heat & pressure

  1. Rocks that are partially or

completely melted

  1. Igneous rock on Earth’s surface

that is weathered and wears away

  1. Sediment that washes down into

rivers and oceans and is pressed

and cemented together

  1. The process in which water, wind, ice and heat break down rock is called ______.
  2. One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rock into fragments or ______from which sedimentary rocks are made.
  3. The process by which sediment is removed from its source is called ______
  4. During ______, sediment is deposited in bodies of water and other low-lying areas.
  5. Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by ______dissolved in water.
  6. Some ______rock is made when sediment is squeezed by the weight of the rock materials that lies above it.
  7. Movement within the Earth that causes buried rock to be exposed at the Earth’s surface is called ______.
  8. Beyond the three basic rock types, rocks can be divided into subcategories based on what?
  1. What is the chemical makeup, or mineral content, or a rock based on?
  2. The size of its grains
  3. The position of its grains
  4. The shape of its grains
  5. Its composition
  6. What do the size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine?
  7. The rock’s texture
  8. The rock’s size
  9. The rock’s color
  10. The rock’s composition
  11. What factors can affect the texture of a sedimentary rock?
  12. The length of time the magma had to cool
  13. The temperature the rock was exposed to
  14. The color of the rock
  15. The size of the grains that make up the rock
  16. What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock?
  17. The length of time the rock had to cool
  18. The size of the rock
  19. The minerals that cement the rock together
  20. The pressure & temperature the rock was exposed to
  21. What factors can affect the texture of a metamorphic rock?
  22. The length of time the magma had to cool
  23. The pressure & temperature the rock was exposed to
  24. The minerals that cement the rock together
  25. The size of the grains that make up the rock

Chapter 2; Section 2: Pages 36-39

  1. What kind of rock forms when hot, liquid rock or magma cools and solidifies?
  2. Which kind of rock has a name that comes from a Latin word that means “fire”?
  3. What two factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?
  4. The material that igneous rock is made up of is called ______.
  5. What are three ways magma can form?
  6. What three factors affect the formation of magma?
  7. How does the composition of magma affect the temperature at which it solidifies?
  8. Light-colored igneous rocks are less ______than dark-colored igneous rocks are.
  9. Light-colored igneous rocks that are rich in aluminum, potassium, silicon and sodium are called ______.
  10. Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are called ______.
  11. The longer it takes for a rock to cool and solidify, the more time ______have to grow, giving the rock a(n) ______grain.
  12. The more quickly an igneous rock cools and solidifies, the ______the grain.
  13. The igneous rock that has cooled most quickly will be found on the ______of a volcano.
  1. Rock that forms below

the Earth’s surface

  1. A large, irregular-shaped

intrusive body

  1. The largest intrusive bodies
  2. Sheetlike intrusions that lie

parallel to previous rock units

  1. Sheetlike intrusions that cut

across previous rock units

  1. Magma ______or pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface to create such formations as batholiths and sills.
  2. Intrusive igneous rock usually has a(n) ______texture.
  3. Igneous roc that forms from lava, or magma that erupts onto the Earth’s surface, is called ______.
  4. Lava can either erupt or flow from long cracks in the Earth’s crust called ______.
  5. When lava flows from fissures on the ocean floor at places where tension is causing the ocean floor to be pulled apart, new ______is formed.
  6. When a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land, the lava can cover a large are and form a plain called a(n) ______.

Chapter 2; Section 3: Pages 40-43

  1. Over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called ______.
  2. When sediment is deposited in layers and compacted, ______is formed,
  3. Dissolved minerals separate from water and become a natural ______that binds the sedimentary rock together.
  4. Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth’s ______.
  5. The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is often its layers, or ______.
  6. Rock or mineral fragments are called ______.
  7. Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented together is called ______sedimentary rock.
  8. Clastic sedimentary rocks can have coarse-, medium-, or fine-grained ______.
  9. Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as seawater, to become rock is called ______sedimentary rock.
  10. Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals is called ______sedimentary rock.
  11. Some limestone is made from the skeletons of tiny ______that live in the oceans in huge colonies called ______.
  12. Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea creatures is called ______limestone.
  13. An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure on plant material over millions of years is called______.

  1. What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?
  2. Mud cracking
  3. Weathering
  4. Stratification
  5. Erosion
  1. What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?
  2. Ripple marks
  3. Stratification
  4. Fossiliferous limestone
  5. Mud cracks
  1. What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?
  2. Ripple marks
  3. Fossiliferous limestone
  4. Coal
  5. Mud cracks
  1. Which sedimentary rock type most likely formed from ancient sand dunes?
  2. Clastic sedimentary rock
  3. Fossiliferous limestone
  4. Chemical sedimentary rock
  5. Organic sedimentary rock

Chapter 2; Section 4: Pages 44-49

  1. Which rock’s name comes from the Greek words for “changed” and “shape”?
  2. Metamorphicc. Fossiliferous limestone
  3. Sedimentaryd. Igneous
  1. What kind of rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have been changed?
  2. Metamorphicc. Fossiliferous limestone
  3. Igneous d. Sedimentary
  1. What force or forces can create metamorphic rocks?
  2. Cooling c. Melting
  3. Heating and pressured. Erosion
  1. The heat and pressure at which some metamorphic rocks originally form allow them to sometimes remain ______at pressures and temperatures that would melt other rock.
  2. Pressure caused by large movements within the crust sometimes causes the ______in metamorphic rocks to align themselves in parallel bands.
  3. During ______rock is heated by nearby magma.
  4. The effect of heat on rock decreases as the rock’s ______from the magma increases and its ______decreases.
  5. When pressure builds up in rock, which is located under other rock formations, ______occurs.
  6. Regional metamorphism occurs deep in the Earth’s ______.

  1. Which of the following is NOT a property of an index mineral?
  2. Forms only at certain temperature
  3. Forms only in sedimentary rock
  4. Forms only in metamorphic rock
  5. Forms only in igneous rock
  1. Which of the following minerals is an example of an index mineral?
  2. Calcitec. Staurolite
  3. Quartzd. Hematite
  1. Which of the following is an example of a mineral that indicates that a metamorphic rock was formed at great depth and under extreme heat and pressure?
  2. Chloritec. Magma
  3. Micad. Garnet
  1. What do we call metamorphic rocks in which mineral grains are NOT aligned?
  2. Foliatedc. Nonfoliated
  3. Intrusived. Extrusive
  1. What is the process in which a mineral changes composition during metamorphism called?
  2. Recrystallizationc. Foliation
  3. Nonfoliationd. Deformation
  1. After quartz limestone has recrystallized, the new rock is called
  2. Schistc. Slate
  3. Gneissd. Quartzite

  1. A rock in which coarse-

grained minerals separate

into distinct bands

  1. A foliated metamorphic

rock made from shale

  1. A metamorphic rock with

mineral grains in planes/bands

  1. A metamorphic rock made from

phyllite that has been exposed to

heat and pressure

  1. A sedimentary rock made of layers

of clay

  1. A metamorphic rock made from

slate that has been subjected to

heat and pressure

  1. What is the change in shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it called?
  2. Deformationc. Foliation
  3. Recrystallizationd. Nonfoliation