Biology a Final Exam Review

Biology a Final Exam Review

Forensics Final Exam Review

The following is a list of topics that will be covered on the final SLO. Feel free to use your notes, worksheets, assignments, and labs to help you review the following topics.The final SLO will not be open note!!!!

Introduction to Forensics

What is forensics?

Crime labs

Edmond Locard

Locard’s exchange principle

Miranda v. Arizona

Frye v. United States

Daubert v. Dow

Eyewitness testimony

Types of Physical Evidence

Class v. Individual Evidence

Crime Scenes



Search Methods

Chain of Custody

Trace Evidence


Cuticle, Cortex, Medulla

Cuticle Patterns

Medulla Patterns

Diff. between animal & human medullas

DNA in hair


Types of fabrics

Weave types


Identification Tests



Refractive index

Becke Line

Characteristics of glass



Overall patterns


Methods of Developing prints

Other prints


DNA Analysis

Mitochondrial DNA


Blood typing

Parts of blood


Age, Gender, Race and Height determination in skeletons

Dental Impressions

Forensic Biology

Factors affecting blood stain

Types of patterns:

Drip, Flow, Pool, Wipe, Swipe, Castoffs

Passive, Transfer, Impact

Height, Speed, Angle affecting stains

Spines & Satellites

Human Remains

Rigor Mortis

Livor Mortis

Algor Mortis

Question Documents

Question Document

Handwriting characteristics

Methods of forgery

Types of forgery

Ink analysis

Paper characteristics

Currency - Security features in US currency

Forensic Chemistry


Schedule of Drugs

Human components for testing

Presumptive and Confirmatory Test


Types of toxicology

Forensic Toxicology

Lethal Dose


Alcohol Absorption

Blood Alcohol Content

Factors affect BAC

Tests for BAC

Field and lab test


Mobile and stationary phases

Paper, thin Layer, Gas, Liquid, High Pressure Liquid, Column

Mass spectrophotometry

Intro to Forensics-

  1. What is forensic science?
  1. Who is Edmond Locard? Why is he significant in Forensic Science?
  1. What is the Locard Exchange Principle?
  1. What is the significance of Miranda v. Arizona?
  1. What is the significance of Frye v. US?
  1. What is the significance of Daubert v. Dow?

Evidence & Crime Scenes

  1. What is testimonial evidence? Give examples.
  1. What is physical evidence? Give examples.
  1. What is class evidence?
  1. What is individual Evidence?
  1. How are crime scenes processed?
  1. What are the five types of search methods?
  1. What is required in a crime scene sketch?
  1. What is the chain of custody?


  1. What can be determined from a hair sample?
  1. What are the 3 main parts of a the hair shaft?
  1. What are the three patterns of the cuticle?
  1. What is melanin?
  1. What is the cortical Fusi?
  1. What is the Medulla?
  1. Describe the five common medulla patterns.
  1. What is the medullary index?
  1. what is the medullary index for humans?
  1. What is the medullary index for animals?
  1. What are the three hair shapes?
  1. As hair grows, what are the three phases hair goes through?
  1. What types of DNA are found in hair and where?
  1. How is hair compared (between a known sample and an unknown)?


  1. What are the properties of the 12 types of fibers discussed in class?
  1. What are the four types of weave patterns?
  1. What is a polymer?
  1. How are fibers tested? (7 methods)
  1. How are fibers collected?


  1. Describe the different types of glass. How are they different?
  1. What is the refractive index? How is it used in forensic science?
  1. What is the Becke line? How is it used in forensic science?
  1. How are the characteristics of glass observed in forensic science?


  1. What can anthropology be used to determine? (5 items)
  1. What bones do you use to determine gender? How can you determine gender from bones?
  1. What bones do you use to determine race? How can you determine race from bones?
  1. What bones do you use to determine age? How can you determine race from age?
  1. How can you determine height from bones?
  1. Describe the process for facial reconstruction from bones.

Forensic Dentistry - Note: Be able to observe and describe a bitemark.

  1. How can dentistry be used in forensics?
  1. Is dentistry class or individual evidence? Explain.
  1. What do forensic dentist look for?


  1. What is a minutia? Give examples.
  1. What is a ridge pattern?
  1. Describe the 8 ridge patterns described in class
  1. How can fingerprints be developed (5 methods described in class)
  1. What are some other prints used to identify individuals? (7 described in class)
  1. What is AFIS? How is it used in forensics?
  1. What is the field of Biometrics?


  1. What might a serology department in a forensic lab deal with?
  1. What is blood made up of?
  1. What tests must be done on a suspected blood stain?
  1. What is a blood antigen? What are the three most common antigens? What blood types does each antigen produce?
  1. Explain how blood type frequencies are helpful.
  1. What does Semen contain?
  1. What does Saliva contain?
  1. How can Saliva be determined?

DNA as Evidence

  1. Describe the structure of DNA (be detailed!)
  1. Where can DNA be found in the body?
  1. How can DNA be used in forensics?
  1. Describe the three types of DNA analysis
  1. How is mitochondrial DNA different from Nuclear?
  1. What is CODIS?

Blood Spatter-

  1. What can be determined by blood pattern analysis?
  1. What are some factors that affect blood stain shapes?
  1. Describe the three methods used to enhance blood at a crime scene

4. For each of the following patterns, describe- a. how it occurs b. it’s overall appearance

c. if it is a passive, transfer or impact stain

i. drip




ii. flow




iii. pool




iv. wipe




v. swipe




vi. skeletonization




vii. impressions




viii. cast-offs




5. How does the following affect blood stains (from lab)

a. Height

b. speed

c. angle

6. What is a spine (in relation to blood stains)?

7. What is a satellite (in relation to blood stains)?

Human Remains as Evidence

1. What is rigor mortis?

2. When does rigor mortis set in?

3. What is livor mortis?

4. When does livor mortis set in?

5. What is algor mortis?

6. How can algor mortis be measured?

7. What factors affect algor mortis?

Questioned Documents -

  1. What is involved in Question Document Analysis (QDA)?
  1. What are some related fields to QDA?
  1. Describe the handwriting characteristics.
  1. What are some methods of forgery?
  1. What are some types of forgery?
  1. How is ink analyzed?
  1. How is paper analyzed?

Chromatography -

  1. What is chromatography?
  1. What are the two phases involved in all chromatography?
  1. Describe paper chromatography.
  1. What is the retention factor? How do you calculate the Retention Factor (Rf)?

Currency -

  1. Currency contains deterrents. What characteristics do the deterrents have to have?
  1. Describe the paper used to make US currency.
  1. What is the purpose of the red & blue fibers in money?
  1. What is Intaglio Printing?
  1. Describe how money is printed.
  1. What is the serial number? How is this helpful in blocking counterfeits?
  1. Where can you find the denomination on money? (there is more than one answer here)
  1. What is the security thread?
  1. What is micro-printing? Give an example of micro-printing.
  1. Describe the color of money. How does this help with security?
  1. How does US money differ from foreign currency?

Controlled Substances-

  1. What is a drug?
  1. What is a controlled substance?
  1. How are controlled substances classified?
  1. Describe each schedule of drugs and give an example of each.
  1. How can a drug be identified?
  1. What human components be used for drug analysis?
  1. What is a presumptive test? Give an example
  1. What is a confirmatory test? Give an example


  1. What is toxicology?
  1. What are the different types of toxicology?
  1. How is toxicology used in forensics?
  1. What are the aspects of toxicology that scientists focus on?
  1. What is the lethal dose?
  1. What is alcohol?
  1. What factors affect alcohol absorption?
  1. What is the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)?
  1. What factors affect BAC?
  1. What are the field tests for alcohol?

Chromatography (also found in Controlled substances notes)

  1. What is chromatography?
  1. What are the two phases involved in all chromatography?
  1. Describe paper chromatography.
  1. What is the Rf?
  1. Describe gas chromatography.
  1. What is spectrophotometry?
  1. What is mass spectrometry?

Fire Investigation

  1. Define the following terms
  2. Fire
  1. Fire triangle
  1. Flash point
  1. Point of origin
  1. Burn Patterns
  1. Accelerants
  1. Arson
  1. Char Pattern
  1. V-Patterns
  1. Heat Shadows
  1. Our air is ______% oxygen, fire requires air to ______% oxygen.
  1. Describe the following V-patterns and what they tell about the fire:
  2. Narrow
  1. Wide
  1. U Shape
  1. What can glass tell about a fire?
  1. What is the Chimney Effect?
  1. What does the color of smoke and flames tell about a fire?
  1. Describe the five possible motives for Arson