Bio B Final Exam Study GuideNameHour
Chapter 11 – Heredity
Compare & Contrast:
- Phenotype & Genotype
- Dominant & Recessive
- Homozygous & Heterozygous
Using seed shape as a sample trait, outline the design of Mendel’s monohybrid cross experiment (include both phenotypes and genotypes
Explain Mendel’s conclusions:
- Principle of Dominance
- Principle of Segregation
Do Punnett squares to predict the results of each of the following crosses:
AA x AAAA x AaAA x aa
Aa x AaAa x aaaa x aa
Yellow seeds are dominant over green. Do punnett squares to predict the offspring of the following crosses:
Homozygous yellow x Homozygous greenHeterozygous yellow x Heterozygous yellow
Homozygous green x homozygous greenHeterozygous yellow x homozygous green
Using seed shape and seed color as a sample traits, outline the design of Mendel’s dihybrid cross experiment
Explain Mendel’s law of Independent Assortment
Flower color in snapdragons is controlled by incomplete dominance. Do punnett squares to predict the results of the following crosses:
Red x RedRed x WhiteRed x PinkPink x PinkWhite x White
Compare & Contrast
- Body cells & gametes
- Haploid & diploid cells
- Homologous chromosomes & sister chromatids
List the phases of meiosis in the correct order and describe what is happening in each phase.
Chapters12 & 13 – DNA
Describe Chargaff’s experiment and Chargaff’s rule. Relate Chargaff’s rule to the “base pairing” rule.
Describe the structure of DNA
Compare & Contrast DNA and RNA
Compare & Contrast the processes of Replication and Transcription
Explain the role of each of the following in the process of Translation:
Compare & Contrast Transcription and Translation
Define mutation and mutagen. Explain what causes mutations to happen.
Chapter 16 – Evolution
Compare & Contrast: Evolution, Adaptation, and Natural Selection
Describe Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle and note some observations that influenced his thinking about Evolution
Compare & Contrast natural selection and artificial selection
Give examples of how artificial selection can be used to create breeds of domesticated animals
Give an example of how color variations in an animal population can affect survival, and how natural selection will occur in the population.
Compare & contrast Homologous, Analagous, and Vestigial structures
Chapter 3 – Ecology
Compare & contrast Population, Community, and Ecosystem
Trace the flow of energy through an ecosystem (starting with the source of energy, trace the energy through the food chain, and tell what happens to the energy once it has been used)
Compare & contrast
- Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
- Producers and Consumers
- Herbivores, Carnivores, and Omnivores
- 1st level (primary), 2nd level (secondary), and 3rd level (tertiary) Consumers
Compare the size of populations and the total available energy between the different trophic levels. Draw an ecological pyramid to show the trend as you go up the food chain.
Describe the major processes of the Water cycle. If the process involves living organisms, tell which type are involved.
Describe the major processes of the Carbon cycle. If the process involves living organisms, tell which type are involved.
Describe the major processes of the Nitrogen cycle. If the process involves living organisms, tell which type are involved.
- Nitrogen fixing
For each nutrient cycle below, tell where plants get that nutrient from.
Chapter 4 – Communities and Ecosystems
List the 2 main components of Climate and identify geographical factors that determine the climate of a region
Draw a graph representing overlapping ranges of tolerance for 2 species. Label:
- Optimum conditions for both species
- The region of greatest competition between the species
- A region where one species is likely to outcompete the other, causing “competitive exclusion”
- A region where only one of the species can live
Compare and Contrast Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism. Give examples of each.
Explain the process of ecological succession.
Compare the soil quality and plant life between a pioneer community and a climax community
For each of the biomes listed, describe
- Climate conditions
- Geographic location
- Plant and animal life characteristic of the biome
Coniferous Forest (Taiga)
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Tropical Rain Forest
Explain the difference between the photic zone and the aphotic zone of the ocean. Compare the life forms that live in each.