Articles Included in Literature Review

Articles Included in Literature Review

Appendix 1

Articles Included in Literature Review






* / Abbasi, Chandio, Soomro et al. (2011) / To extend TAM to the context of a developing country (504 Pakistan academics’ usage of Internet) / VOL does not moderate the relationship between SN and BI.
Adams, Nelson & Todd (1992) / To examine 118 users’ acceptance of voice mail and/or e-mails / Captive use makes it difficult to find a truly voluntary technology.
* / Agarwal Prasad (1997) / To examine 73 part time MBA students’ use of WWW / PVOL has negative influence on current use (β =-0.27)
* / PVOL has no effect on future intention to use WWW
* / Agarwal, Prasa, & Zanino (1996) / To examine 230 employees’ use of graphical user interface / PVOL has negative influence on future use of graphic user interface (β =-0.148)
Amoako-Gyampah & Salam (2004) / To extend TAM to an ERP system (571 employees’ use of SAP R/3) / The usage of ERP system incorporates both mandatory and discretionary usage. The mandatory usage represents a base level needed to perform minimal job functions and usage beyond that might become voluntary.
* / Anderson, Schwager & Kerns (2006) / To apply UTAUT in a university setting (37 faculty members’ use of tablet PCs) / PVOL has positive influence on use (β =0.478)
Azad & King (2008) / To open the black box of computer workarounds in the context of using a medication dispensing system in a hospital / Social actors negotiate to enact a ‘deviation,’ since without such negotiations there is little chance that any deviation would be enacted in practice. This interpretive flexibility enables professional groupings to bend or ignore rules.
* / Benham Raymond (1996) / To test TPB (using 612 faculty members’ use of a voice mail system) / PVOL has positive influence on perceived behavioural control (β =0.174)
Boudreau & Robey (2005) / To investigate the role of human agency in the adoption of an ERP system / Employees were able to work around the system through reinvention and/or collaboration, rendering the system less mandatory than intended by management.
Brown, Massey, Montoya-Weiss & Burkman (2002) / To investigate user acceptance in a mandatory setting (107 employees’ use of a mandated computer banking system) / When use was mandated, the parsimonious TAM was supported but the original TAM was not. In TPB the intention to use was predicted by perceived behaviour control and subjective norm, not by attitude.
Chae & Poole (2005) / To understand how mandates for ERP systems are issued and socially constructed at the unit level / A mandate can stem from other sources than a management decision, such as a legal requirement, a regulatory body, or an agreement with another organizational partner, and is subject to interpretations.
Chan, Thong, Venkatesh et al. (2010) / To apply UTAUT in a mandatory setting (1179 Hong Kong citizens’ adoption of Smart ID card) / SN is not a predictor of satisfaction in the mandatory setting.
Chau (1996) / To modify TAM by distinguishing between near-term PU and long-term PU (192 users of MS Word and 176 users of MS Excel) / The researcher made a conscious choice in selecting voluntary technologies.
* / Chen, Lai, & Ho(2015) / To investigate continued use (195 high school teachers’ use of teaching blogs in Taiwan) / PVOL has positive influence on continued use of blogs (β =0.40)
* / Clay, Dennis Ko (2005) / To investigate the concept of loyal use (1013 pharmaceutical sales reps’ use of knowledge management systems) / PVOL has negative influence on loyal use (β =-0.31)
* / Compeau, Meister & Higgins (2007) / To examine 380 healthcare professionals’ adoption and use of a comprehensive hospital computer system / PVOL has negative influence on use intensity (β =-0.18)
* / PVOL has no effect on relative advantage.
* / Croteau & Vieru (2002) / To examine 87 urban physicians’ adoption and use of telemedicine / PVOL has negative influence on intention to use (β =-0.181)
* / To examine 41 rural physicians’ adoption and use of telemedicine / PVOL has no effect on intention to use.
Ferneley & Sobreperez (2006) / To investigate user resistance in the form of workarounds in two sites / Three strands of workaround activity are proposed – harmless workarounds, hindrance workarounds and essential workarounds.
Flight, Allaway, Kim et al.(2011) / To compare the PCIs of DVD and blue-ray players (224 American and 239 Korean consumers) / Adoption is less voluntary in later stages of diffusion in both cultures.
Goette (2000) / To investigate the acceptance of voice recognition technology by 38 disability users / PVOL was used to check whether usage was voluntary.
Goodhue, Klein & March (2000) / To investigate TTF and performance by 155 pairs of undergraduate students using technology to complete managerial tasks / TTF is a good theoretical underpinning for user evaluation as a surrogate of IS success because it applies to both mandatory and voluntary settings, unlike TAM which applies only to voluntary ones.
* / Green, Collins, & Hevner(2004) / To examine 63 IS professionals’ use of software process innovations / PVOL has negative influence on use (β =-0.33).
* / Hardgrave, Davis, & Riemenschneider (2003) / To examine 128 system developers’ use of formalized software development methodologies / PVOL (named as Organizational Mandate) has negative influence on intention to follow methodologies (β = -0.18).
* / Hartwick & Barki (1994) / To examine the involvement and use of a new system at work by 127 members of Canadian Information Processing Society / Subjective norm predicts intention to use only in the mandatory sample.
* / Hebert Benbasat (1994) / To investigate 151 nurses’ adoption of a point-of-care technology / PVOL has no effect on intention to use.
* / Hester (2010) / To study the impact of characteristics of innovating (PCI) on usage and infusion of knowledge management technology in 170 users / PVOL has no effect on the use of knowledge management system.
* / PVOL is a significant predictor of the infusion of non-wiki-based knowledge management system (β =0.21).
Hsieh & Wang (2007) / To examine extended use of an ERP environment (which was expected to be mandatory) in China / PEOU has a stronger effect on extended use than PU does in a mandatory setting.
* / Hsu, Lu Hsu (2007) / To examine 70 early majority adopters of multimedia messaging services / PVOL has positive influence on intention to use (β =0.183)
* / To examine 49 innovators, 70 late majority, and 18 laggards of adopting multimedia messaging services / PVOL has no effect on intention to use in these three groups
Igbaria, Zinatelli, Cragg, & Cavaye (1997) / To investigate the acceptance of personal computing by 358 users from a variety of small firms in New Zealand / 85 respondents were removed from their data set because these respondents’ usage might be mandated and were deemed unsuitable for testing the technology acceptance model.
* / Iivari (1996) / To investigate the adoption of CASE tools (105 users in Finland) / PVOL has negative influence on use (β=-0.58)
Jackson, Chow, & Leitch (1997) / To extend TAM with involvement, argument for change, and prior use (111 users from a variety of organizations) / The authors contended that some mandated use of the financial systems should not affect the applicability of TRA to their study.
* / Karahanna, Straub Chervany (1999) / To examine the intention of 77 potential users of Windows / PVOL has no effect on intention to adopt Windows.
* / To examine the intention of 153 current users of Windows / PVOL has negative influence on intention to continue using Windows (β =-0.17).
* / Kijsanayotin, Pannarunothai Speedie (2009) / To examine 1323 staff members’ use of health IT in Thailand / Perceived voluntariness has positive influence on intention to use (β =0.10).
* / Lee, Lee & Lee (2006) / A longitudinal study of 293 voluntary and 256 mandatory users of WebCT to compare self-identity against subjective norm / Subjective norm is a direct predictor of usage intention only in the mandatory-inexperienced condition.
Liang, Xue, Ke et al. (2010) / To investigate the impact of team climate on use (103 Chinese physicians’ voluntary use of a computerized order entry system) / Subjective norm has no effect on IT use in the voluntary setting.
* / Lowry (2002) / To examine 58 professional engineers’ adoption and use of building management systems in UK / PVOL has negative influence on current use (β =-0.43).
* / PVOL has no effect on future intention to use.
* / In the low voluntariness group, EOU positively influences future intention to use. In the high voluntariness group, compatibility positively influences future intention to use.
Lu, Yao & Yu (2005) / To investigate the impact of subjective norm, image, and PIIT on TAM in the context of adopting wireless Internet services via mobile technology (which is expected to be purely voluntary) / PU and PEOU fully mediate between the external variables and usage intention in a voluntary setting.
Lucas & Spitler (1999) / To extend TAM with performance of 49 brokers and 58 sales representatives using workstations / TAM was not supported in their study and authors attributed that to use that was not voluntary enough. Captive use makes it difficult to find a truly voluntary technology. Users have considerable discretion in exercising different functions and features that are beyond a base level required for tasks.
Malhotra (1999) / To understand the personal construction of technology adoption / The personal constructions were clearly distinguishable from the socially mandated constructions (i.e., management’s normative views)
* / Moore (1989) / To integrate diffusion of innovation with theory of reasoned behaviour (540 professionals from 7 companies across industries) / PVOL has negative influence on attitude toward using personal work station (β = -0.15).
* / PVOL has negative influence on using personal work station (β = -0.37).
Moore & Benbasat (1991) / To develop measurements for perceived characteristics of innovating / Perceived voluntariness is a continuous variable.
Nah, Tan & Teh (2004) / To understand user acceptance of a mandatory system (229 users of SAP) / Symbolic adoption is more representative of user acceptance than usage intention as the dependent variable when usage is mandatory.
Orlikowski, Yates, Okamura & Fujimoto (2010) / To uncover the metastructuring of computer-mediated communication technology / The newsgroups that were originally entirely discretionary later became official communication medium.
Palen & Grudin (2003) / To investigate bottom-up shared use of an online calendar system / An officially discretionary technology for group collaboration can be made unofficially mandatory due to peer pressure from other group members.
* / Plouffe, Hulland Vandebosch (2001) / To examine 172 retail vendors’ adoption of smart card technology / PVOL has positive influence on intention (β =0.038).
Rai, Lang & Welker (2002) / To contextualize the investigation of the success of a student information system that was not officially mandated but was necessary for some of the 274 respondents in a university / In this quasi-volitional context, information quality is more critical in shaping IS success.
* / Ramayah (2010) / To test the impact of PVOL on TAM (67 university off-campus students’ use of distance learning technology in Malaysia) / PVOL is a significant moderator between belief (PEOU and PU) and usage. PVOL intensifies the relationship.
Rawstorne, Jayasuriya &d Caputi (2000) / To test the predictive power of TAM and TPB when usage is mandated (61 nurses’ use of a patient care system) / Perceived behaviour control did not make a substantial contribution to the explanation of mandated use.
Scheepers, Scheepers & Ngwenyama (2006) / To justify investigating user satisfaction when the usage of mobile computing technology was mandated in two sites / Voluntariness of mobile computing is not a binary concept due to multiple layers of context that overlap.
Sørebø & Eikebrokk (2008) / To investigate continuance in a mandatory setting (161 users of a cash transaction system) / Satisfaction is a more meaningful dependent variable when usage is mandated.
* / Speier Venkatesh (2002) / The adoption of sales force automation technologies of 277 telecom sales personnel and 177 real estate agents / PVOL has positive influence on relative advantage (β =0.15 & 0.15 in firm 1, β =0.17 & 0.15 in firm 2).
* / Staples & Seddon (2004) / Testing the technology-to-performance chain model with 112 librarians (mandatory) and 107 students (voluntary). / Subjective norm is positively related to utilization in mandatory settings only.
* / Templeton & Byrd (2003) / The use of system development methodologies by 47 software development personnel / PVOL has no impact on trialability.
* / van Slyke et al.(2002) / To examine the usage intention of 186 students (groupware) / PVOL has no influence on future intention to use.
* / van Slyke et al.(2010) / To investigate the acceptance of distance learning classes (334 undergraduate students) / PVOL has a positive influence on intention to adopt (β = 0.124).
Vehring, Riemer and Klein (2011) / To investigate the adoption of a collaboration technology in Germany / Espoused voluntariness from managerial perspective may evolve over time, depending on the adoption in each department.
* / Venkatesh & Bala (2008) / To test TAM3 with 38 supervisor and 39 users of a voluntary system and 43 and 36 potential users of a mandatory system / Subjective norm predicts behavioural intention in mandatory settings.
* / Venkatesh Davis (2000) / TAM extension through a longitudinal study of four technologies used by 38 floor supervisors, 39 members of a personal financial services department, 43 employees of an accounting firm, and 35 employees of an investment banking firm / Subjective norm predicts intention to use only in the mandatory sites.
Venkatesh (2000) / To investigate the antecedents of PEOU over time, with three studies / PVOL was used as a check to ensure usage was voluntary.
* / Venkatesh, Morris, Davis & Davis (2003) / To construct a unified theory of technology adoption (54 users of a web communication tool, 65 users of a data application, 58 analysts’ use of a portfolio analyzer, and 38 accountants’ use of proprietary accounting systems) / Social influence factors are significant predictor of usage intention in mandatory sites only.
* / Wu & Lederer (2009) / Meta-analysis of environment-based voluntariness in TAM / Perceived usefulness and ease of use predict intention to use only when environment-based voluntariness is high.


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Agarwal, R., Prasad, J., & Zanino, M. C. (1996). Training experiences and usage intentions: a field study of a graphical user interface. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45(2), 215–241.

Amoako-Gyampah, K., & Salam, A. F. (2004). An extension of the technology acceptance model in an ERP implementation environment. Information & Management, 41(6), 731–745.

Anderson, J. E., Schwager, P. H., & Kerns, R. L. (2006). The Drivers for Acceptance of Tablet PCs by Faculty in a College of Business. Journal of Information Systems Education, 17(4), 429–440.

Azad, B., & King, N. (2008). Enacting computer workaround practices within a medication dispensing system. European Journal of Information Systems, 17(3), 264–278.

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Boudreau, M.-C., & Robey, D. (2005). Enacting integrated information technology: A human agency perspective. Organization Science, 16(1), 3–18.

Brown, S. A., Massey, A. P., Montoya-Weiss, M. M., & Burkman, J. R. (2002). Do I really have to? User acceptance of mandated technology. European Journal of Information Systems, 11(4), 283–295.

Chae, B., & Poole, M. S. (2005). Mandates and Technology Acceptance: A Tale of Two Enterprise Technologies. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 14(2), 147–166.

Chan, F. K. Y., Thong, J. Y. L., Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., Hu, P. J. H., & Tam, K. Y. (2010). Modeling Citizen Satisfaction With Mandatory Adoption of An e-Government Technology. Journal of the Association for Information, 11(10), 519–549.

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Chen, C., Lai, H., & Ho, C. (2015). Why do teachers continue to use teaching blogs ? The roles of perceived voluntariness and habit. Computers & Education, 82(1), 236–249.

Clay, P. F., Dennis, A. R., & Ko, D. (2005). Factors affecting the loyal use of knowledge management systems. In the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (p. 251).

Compeau, D. R., Meister, D. B., & Higgins, C. A. (2007). From prediction to explanation: Reconceptualizing and extending the perceived characteristics of innovating. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8(8), 409–439.

Croteau, A.-M., & Vieru, D. (2002). Telemedicine adoption by different groups of physicians. In The 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1–9).

Ferneley, E. H., & Sobreperez, P. (2006). Resist, comply or workaround? An examination of different facets of user engagement with information systems. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(4), 345–356.

Flight, R. L., Allaway, A. W., Kim, W., & D’Souza, G. (2011). A Study of Perceived Innovation Characteristics Across Cultures and Stages of Diffusion. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(1), 109–126.

Goette, T. (2000). Keys to the Adoption and Use of Voice Recognition Technology in Organizations. Information Technology & People, 13(1), 67–80.

Goodhue, D. L., Klein, B. D., & March, S. T. (2000). User evaluations of IS as surrogates for objective performance. Information & Management, 38(2), 87–101.

Green, G. C., Collins, R. W., & Hevner, A. R. (2004). Perceived control and the diffusion of software process innovations. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 15(1), 123–144.

Hardgrave, B. C., Davis, F. D., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2003). Investigating determinants of software developers’ intentions to follow methodologies. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(1), 123–151.

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