1 |Organization and Management Theory
Organization Behavior and the Manager
Chau Ken, Sze
Student ID number: 80800148
Course:BUS510 Organization and Management Theory 2011E
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Objectives and Goals------4
1.2 Significance of the Study------4
1.3 Scope and Limitations------5
2.0 Review of Related Literature------5-7
2.1 Management Theories------5-6
2.2 Organizational Behavior and Theories------6-7
3.1 The Manager’s Roles: Implications------9-10
One of the drawbacks of the general concept of management is how it is stereotypically labeled it as theoretical. This renders several implications considering the difficulty of justifying theory in practice, especially on the part of managers and other organizational leaders. More so, there are a number of traditional and emerging theories to look into the broad context of management, which has been evolving and developing over time. Despite this particular notion, the value and massive contribution of these management and organizational behavior theories have served as the core foundation of management for a number of years. Without these theories, management seemed incomplete and unexplainable.
Moreover, the management and organizational theories render important ideas and issues to managers. Some of these concepts might not be so realistic and true, although these have served as the basis in understanding the role of the managers and management in organizations itself. More than such criticism, organization and management theories guide the managers in their daily endeavor, taking into account the functions of planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling. In this sense, management theories and concepts related with organizations are highly important for success and sustainability to be attained. Other than these, the management theories are not only embedded in private companies and other business-related establishments, but as well in public and government sectors, academic and health organizations, and even man’s daily lives.
1.1 Objectives and Goals
Taking these conceptions into account, this paper mainly seeks to attain the following objectives:
- To discuss management and organizational behavior
- To elaborate the role of the managers as emphasized by management theories
- To present arguments about management and organization theories, with emphasis on managerial roles
1.2 Significance of the Study
This research mainly discusses the managerial roles as described and guided by the management and organizational theories. Knowing these will provide several important aspects about managing organizations and how these theories influence such function. This would also foster an overview of the basic foundations of management and some arguments that honed managerial roles and functions. Through the examples to be presented, the changes that have occurred in these theories may as well be looked into, which could generate realizations and learning towards management; regardless of its criticisms.
1.3 Scope and Limitations
This study will mainly tackle the management and organization theories, while emphasizing the manager’s roles and perspectives. Examples will also be presented as obtained from secondary data—journals, books and articles. Websites were also consulted. Despite these limitations, the study presents viable management discussions.
2.0 Review of Related Literature
This section will mainly elaborate management theories and some parts of organizational theories.
2.1 Management Theories
The early definitions of management was acquired from Weihrich (1993), wherein it was described as the “process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims” (p.4). This meaning is further expanded by the following ideas that Weihrich provided:
- Managers basically perform planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling functions.
- Management is applicable to any organization type.
- Management is also pertinent to managers in all organizational levels.
- Managers generally and widely seek for the creation of surplus.
- Managing concerns with productivity that in turn emphasizes effectiveness and efficiency.
On a more current approach, Darr (2011) discussed management theory in four main elements, namely: (1) a process that is composed of interconnected social and technical activities and functions; (2) accomplishes organizational objectives; (3) attains the said goals through people and resources; and (4) undertaken in formal organizational environments. This would indicate that managers at all different levels shape the organizational values and culture through their decisions and leadership. The way they lead and manage also influences these, despite how senior managers are more likely and directly affected or influenced. The overall performance of the organization is also deemed as the managers’ best efforts, regardless of the hierarchal functions and levels.
2.2 Organizational Behavior and Theories
Organizational behavior, as defined by McGinnis (2012) is a broad management area that mainly looks into the way people act in organizations. The managers can actually use the organizational behavior theories in order to make their management practices better. This is also inclined with the effective and successful attainment of organizational goals through working and influencing employees. Like management, organizational behavior is also emphasized to have evolved from the scientific or empirical studies, especially during the industrial era; the administrative theories of the manager’s role, principles of bureaucracy and human relations studies of employees’ needs (as cited from Scott, 1992). More so, organizational behavior is regarded as an “interdisciplinary field that draws on ideas and research of many disciplines that draws on ideas and research of many disciplines that are concerned with human behavior and interaction. Taking into account Robbins (2003), McGinnis (2012) enumerated these disciplines as psychology, social psychology, industrial psychology, sociology, communications and anthropology.
Within the concept of organizational behavior are the theories that served as the foundation in explaining its overall nature. This has led to the rise of research and empirical studies considering that truth is at all not fixed, which may imply that problems that pertain to the objectives of social sciences. (McGinnis, 2012)
Despite these, organizational theories and behavior share several degree of importance to an organization. As underscored by Knights and Willmott (2007), organizational behavior is widely looked up as the foundation of management studies. The behavioral notions specifically include thinking, feeling and acting skills. It as well refers to the value and significance of understanding behavior of people who are working in different levels of an organization. Moreover, looking into OB would allow one to further understand the reasons and means employees are organized. This as well includes the identification and assessment of the consequences of decision making and the introduction of changes in the sense where consequences are expected.
Humans, according to the long-established economists’ assumption, are said to be selfish rationalists but such statement has been deemed wrong, as cited from Fischbacher and Fehr (2003) including in the manners which they are considered essential to management and organizational theory as illustrated in the latest developments of the experiments in economics. As elaborated by Richerson, Collins and Genet (2007), humans are susceptible to unselfish and fair behavior despite of the fact that they may behave in nice ways but such conducts varies both culturally and individually as mentioned by Rousseau et al. (1998). As exemplified, a justified cross-disciplinary agreement exists on the vital role that is as credible to be playing a role with regards to the attitudes of man in organizations. Implications has it, coming from Orlizky et al.’s (2003) extreme evaluations about the studies of environmental and corporate social responsibility, that companies which strive using the most reserved approach of pursuing policies are the ones which really made more revenues compared to those which are restricting formal accounting towards the matters involving financial issues. For this particular results, after having been integrated with the current models of administrative misfeasance in the world of business, have ignited a forceful reaction as far as the dominance of economic principle in management academic is concerned as stated by Ferraro et al., (2005) and Ghoshal (2005). Hypothetically, the reasonableness of economic principle leaks into the attitudinal context in unintentional manners. Trust and cooperation prior to that consideration then appear to be the basis where organizations are formed as it emanated from the contributed theory of cultural evolution which was supposed to create comprehensible human predisposition.
Indeed, the managers play an essential role in managing an organization. Although the management concepts are deemed theoretical, the managers are undertaking practical activities and approaches. According to Dubrin (2010), a useful perspective of management refers to practice. Management is as well regarded as a practice rather than a profession or scientific entity. Hence, managers can learn both from experience and study. Moreover, managers are as well noted to make use of knowledge and at the same time, rely on intuition that has stemmed from previous experiences.
In addition, management is not only viewed as a profession such as in the aspect of acquiring licenses such as medicine, law or nurses. This is would mean, as a result of restrictions that individuals would be forbidden to work as a middle manager or own a software firm without the state or provincial licenses. Managerial role is not only defined and embedded in the context of profession. This does not as well downgrade its value and worth. On a different level, points of views of two professors at Harvard Business School namely Rakesh Khurana and Nitin Nohria were also underscored upon claiming the need to make management a real profession. The authors are believed to mainly refer to the top-level executives. Their opinions stated that management must become a profession in order to regain public trust as doing so would further emphasized ethical codes and conduct. More so, the managers are suggested to attain appropriate education. (Dubrin, 2010)
3.1 The Manager’s Roles: Implications
In every profession, managers are needed because in that aspect it makes a team to achieve goals. In our midst there would be prospective managers in the future hence by that time, as we reach the peak where career moves are necessary prior to our job advancement; there are expectedly management responsibilities we ought to face as part of our managerial roles. In order to carry out our roles effectively, we are required to put together our experience, skills and gained knowledge. In doing so, various steps and several development forms have to be performed. It is noted that part of our abilities are learned from role models as we develop them through observations with others, past experiences with the similar nature of the job, formal or informal coaching, training and seminars including the mere conversations with the staff and colleagues. More importantly, there are two significant points to put into mind and they are:
1. The consideration that you have your subordinates who are willing to work with you as a manager. They are your own support group, a network which is particularly part of the team as staff, peers and you as their manager. Then there is the HR team which is offering advice, guidance as they develop policies and gives you formal opportunities to be able to facilitate your own growth and provides you with up-to-date trainings.
2. The “how to manage” rulebook should not be taken for granted but in the same manner should not be deemed as a prerequisite to pressure you over. As a manager it is not at all times expected of you to know everything. It is a given fact that you can never please everyone whilst it is but as crucial to hone yourself with the inevitable that along the way people will always react differently in various situations thus you are supposed to be acquainted with your staff all throughout. (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2010)
There is a newer continuum regarding opportunities yielded upon the cuddling of the specified work per se in strategic organization. The first range involves the consolidation of evaluations as to why, when and how actors employ into action a thing like identity work, institutional work and boundary work to mean it essentially enhance our comprehension about strategic organization. It is in the manners done, both by broadening our understanding of the motivations that support various strategies in an organization that transcend the conventional concerns which brings with it social influence or economic gain as exemplified by the development or security of identity. More so, we were able to examined thing as we were given a further fine distinction as far as our understanding is concerned about the ways with which organizational strategies are recognized like the expression of emotion, transformation of institutions and the construction of disruption of boundaries.
The second range involves the carrying out of a strategic organization’s perspective into these innovative forms of work correlating to the fact that researchers have the capacity to offer new means of thinking and new devices needed in the evaluations of this developing research course. Such discussion also implies that there is a given opportunity that tends to aid researchers be saved from the aspect where they are supposed to reinvent the wheel; whilst on several instances, vital insights are already attained prior to strategic organization which was directly employed unto the questions brought about by researchers in these particular fields. As noted, the field of strategic organization can convey new hypothetical suggestions over the on-going discussion regarding these topics. Lastly, employing on this field of research gives the scholarly community the opportunity to widen their know-how on strategic organization. Working with them allows us to throw in the developing literatures on different forms of work, boost distinguishing insights from strategic organization which is significant to the new fields of scholarship. (Phillips and Lawrence, 2012)
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