Vovchak Olga Dmytrivna
Ukrainian National Bank University
Antoniuk Oksana Ivanivna
Khmelnytskyi cooperative trade-economic institute
THE STATE SUPPORT OF SMALL AND AVERAGE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE
This article considers theimportance ofsmallbusiness in economydevelopment, necessity of its state support for Ukraine, outlines the basic problems concerning the state support small business and offers ways their decision.
Keywords: small-scale business, state, credit, business, state support of small business.
Inroduction.Small-scale business carries out an important role in the decision of many economic and social problems. Active support of development small business in the long term promotes creation of a considerable quantity of workplaces, increase in tax base, growth of the national income. The payment small at formation competitive environments in economy of each country is heavy for overestimating business. At the same time, the analysis of the statistical data about development small business in Ukrainecertifiesthat in this sector of economy essential positive changes do not occur. Therefore favorable environment for development of small business is an important economic policyproblemof the state. Transition to market economy in Ukraine with a special sharpness questionedthe role and state place in economic processes, especially in regulation and small businesssupport. Necessity of its state support and responsible state policy is caused by that despite powerful advantages of small business, this sector of economy is the most vulnerable to such adverse factors, as uncertainty of economic strategy, tax burden, arbitrariness of corrupted employees,inflationarycrush, competition of big corporations, etc. [6, p. 96]. Concerning necessity of the state support small business among science officers exists variety of sights concerning forms and directions of creation of development of this sector of economy favorable the environment.
The analysis of researches and publications of last years.Scientific interest causes a number of the latest works concerning the state support of development small business of domestic authors:Bilyk, O.Vasylyk, Z.Varnaliy, T.Kovalchuk, O.Moroz, V.Oparin, A.Podderyogin, M.Savluk, V.Fedosovand others. So, in Z.Varnaliy'smonography «State regulatory policy in sphere of small business» theoretical principles and the economic nature of small business, its place and role in the structure of market economy, tendency and feature of development in Ukraine [8, p. 28]. Separate authors, in particular M.Savluk, V.Fedosov,O.Vovchak, focus attention on operating conditions small business and rоlе which small business should play in national economy [9, p. 321, 10, p. 112, 11, p. 133]. At the same time, insufficiently theoretically and practicallydeveloped questionsare financial maintenance of small businessdevelopment, participations in this governmental process, especially in the conditions of economic and financial crises. All these need profound researches.
Definitions of necessity and features of a state policy concerning creation of favorable conditions for financial maintenance of development small business in Ukraine taking into account the crisis phenomena in economyarethe purpose of the given article.
As usual, formation small business in each country is the integral making part of a market mechanism of the state because will warm a considerable role in many areas of its economy, and, at the same time, is long enough process. Intensive development of small business cannot occur without the aid of the state. After all the state as institutionalthe basis of development of national economy and a society should take active part in formation of a policy concerning assistance of development of enterprise structures. With that end in view economic levers and assistance mechanisms are as usual used [4, p. 12].
In economic and legislative literature the state support small business is defined, first of all,as creations by the state of organizational-legal and economic conditions for development of enterprise structures. Government programs of support small business should consider a condition of budgetary, credit and financial system, a standard of life of the population for effective and timely direct and indirect influence on business development. Creations of favorable conditions for development of small business, in particular maintenanceare main principles of a state policy:
- System and integrated approach of mechanisms of state regulation of development of small business;
- Purposefulness and supports of subjects of small business by a choice of priorities and concentration of resources for them realisation;
- Access of subjects of small business of all patterns of ownership equal in rights to financial, material, natural, information and other resources [3, p. 116].
The state support of development small business should provide first of all formation favorable tax environments. It in particularis caused by that factor of bankruptcy among small firms very high. The smaller business, the it the higher. The new enterprises of the least size (to 9 working) have less than 75 % of reliability to survive within the first year and one chance fromthree–nextfouryears and further. The bit big firms (at least 20 working) have 95 % of reliability of a survival in the first year, and within fournext years this level makes already 50 %. Consider expedient to enter differentiation of rates of surtaxes depending on size of tax base. For neogenic firms it is necessary to enter tax privileges which will give the chance to expand possibilities to develop own business. Need the preferential taxation of firm which work in priority for the state activity kinds. In our opinion, it is expedient to develop preferential system of crediting small business. First of all, it is expedient to give long-term credits (for term over 5 years) under a concessionary interest rate to the enterprises which have already generated 2/3 capitals for realisation of investments which minimises risk non-return the credit. Such financial help will give possibility to the enterprise to accumulate necessary financial resources for realisation of investments, will accelerate a recoupment of projects .
In system of a state policy of support and assistance of development small business it is possible to allocate some directions: financially - credit, organizational - technical, information and consulting support, the help to subjects of enterprise activity in the course of search of consumers and adaptation on production commodity market. Important to problems is solutions of a problem of mobilisation of the financial resources necessary for initial financing of process of managing which there are businessmen . In this direction it is possible to allocate such kinds financially - credit support of small business from the state:
- Direct state financing;
- Direct state crediting;
- Non-state crediting;
- Stateguaranteeing of credits;
- Non-stateguaranteeing of credits.
Financing of business by the state believes not market method of support and consequently - inexpedient means of the state influence for development of economic processes. But actually dotation remains the widespread lever of economic policy in many countries. For example, the sum of annual grants in support of small business in the United States of America makes 300 billion dollars of the budget. In Ukraine in the absence of grants of budgetary funds for such kind of support the direct financial help of business almost absent. Today the basic means of the state financial support small business isgranting of bank credits from the budget. Therefore, in a present situation, the state loans can become a real source of formation of financial resources of small business .
One of important directions of support small business can become introduction by the state of the mechanism of stimulation of commercial banks to granting of loans to small enterprises on favourable terms. Clearing of the taxation of bank means which go to fund of credits small business, and granting of the state guarantee of returning loans can be its essential element.
In our opinion, financially – credit aid to small business should be based on such principles:
Stimulation of commercial banks and others financial небанковскихto granting of loans and expansions of credit services to such firms by clearing of the taxation of means which go to fund of crediting of small business, granting of the state guarantees of returning loans.
Reorientation of the budgetary funds directed on financially-credit support of sector of small business, from direct maintenance with financial resources on formation of guarantee funds for the purpose of stimulation of process of crediting small business.
Activization of process of formation of not state guarantees, insurance conditions for service small business throughcreationof corresponding motivational mechanisms of interest in this activity and granting of concessionary terms for them functioning.
Effective utilisation of the foreign help and active revealing of the position in mutual relations with the international financial organisations.
Assistance of process of self-organising of subjects of small business in the decision of the financially-credit problems by means of creation of establishments of mutual financing and warranting.
Uncertain and variable relations of the state to small business whichdepends on a political conjuncture, economic and social situation and other factorsarea characteristic sign of economic policy of Ukraine.
Formation and realisation in full of a state policy of development small business and creation of complete system of its state financial support in a context of problemsuniversal development and optimisation of economic structure of Ukraine – difficult and long process. However, already today it is possible and it is necessary to carry out certain practicalmeasures both on state, and on regional levels from formation economic and organizational-legal principles corresponding state policy and introduction in action of concrete norms of the legislation which will promote development small business and, thereby, – developments of economy of Ukraine in general.
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