# Standards of Learning Parent Tips for Fifth Graders

Standards of Learning “Parent Tips” for Fifth Graders

from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

### -Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

Seventh Edition of Frequently Asked Questions

By

George K. McCrum

Dear 5th Grade Parents, Winter 2007

The next few pages are an initiative to assist parents with their understanding of the Standards Of Learning (SOL) and provide information about how SOLs can be reinforced at home. As we "Count Down to the Standards of Learning” assessments, you can follow along by asking simple application questions each night as a fun and motivating way to encourage a united and focused effort. Practice with the most frequently asked forms of questions and the testing formats, has proven to be most effective. The SOL examinations will be held May 7ththrough May 23rd except for the Writing Assessments scheduled duringMarch5th through the 7th.

The examples and descriptions of the items in each section are not intended to be a comprehensive curriculum but have proven to add to the probability of success with the SOL assessments. The examples are parallel to the assessments but no single example is to be expected on the S.O.L. examination. We intend to help you understand the format of the examinations, provide hints to key elements assessed and give you ways to improve your child’s SOL score.The websites of provide sample examination questions and graphics that have been frequently used.

Standards Of Learning “Parent Tips” from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

-Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

The questions on this examination assess the skills and knowledge from the 4th and 5th grade Standards Of Learning. The questions usually represent “real life” situations and cover the areas of Computation and Estimation, Number and Number Sense, Measurement and Geometry, Probability and Statistics as well as Patterns, Functions and Algebra. The examination allows the use of calculators during one part of this two-part examination. The children record their answers on a separate answer document from the question booklet so maintaining their place is essential. The answer choices alternate between either A, B, C, or D for one question that is then followed by answer choices of F, G, H, or J for the next question. Skipping problems means that precisely returning to the correct place is important. Specific sections of the examination rely upon the ability to interpret pictures and graphs, use logical reasoning, solve multiple-step problems by solving simpler problems and occasional use of a strategy called“working backwards”.

demonstrate knowledge of numerals using <, >, and = through millions…

show you equivalent fractions with denominators of 12 or less…ex: ½ cup and 1/3 cup...

demonstrate knowledge of place value to the ten-thousandths place…ex: 25.01627

tell you the role of the hundredths place in estimating to the nearest tenth…ex: ask your

child to find a decimal number in the newspaper and round it to the nearest tenth or hundredth place…

apply a metric ruler to a household object then estimate its length in inches or feet…

explain a decimal number they have written out in word form then compare two different

decimal numbers in word form with <, >, or =.

explain why the total place setting at the dinner table that contains a knife, fork and a

spoon at each of four place settings can be represented by the algebraic expression of 4 X n = ___…

make up their own algebraic expressions…ex: glasses + plates + silverware = ____

make change from a set of three items bought at the store given \$ 5.00…

explain the distinction between “how much taller” and the “how tall”…ex: I am 2 times as

tall as you are tall. I am 2 meters tall and you are___ centimeters. I am ____ centimeters tall?…

demonstrate comparisons with decimals such as 0.178 X 0.4and 0.178 X 4…

continue practice multiplication through the ten-thousandths place…

explain how multiplication works…

explain how multiplication with decimals and division with decimals is different…

explain why a division problem with a remainder is really a mixed number that has a

decimal equivalent…

show you, with dividends expressed as decimal through the ten thousandths place and a

single-digit divisor, that they can find the quotient…

compare values of numerals and decimals using the symbols of <, >, or =…ex: 9 of

the baseball players on the field at one time equals what percentage of all the baseball players on the fielding in one inning?... [50%] What is the decimal equivalent of that percentage?…[.5]

using <, >, and = apply the comparison to decimal values through the ten

thousandths place…ex: .0755 is < or > or = to .0755, etc…

estimate length in inches and centimeters…

explain why the number of centimeters is always greater than inches for the measured

length of an object…

explain their understanding of the formula Area = length X width…

explain their understanding of phrases, and the necessary mathematical applications, that appear in the problem solving section of an examination such as in all,and how much longer is…

add and subtract mixed numbers and fractions and then choose from a selection of

answers that are stated in simplest form…ex: 2 3/8 + 5 6/8 = __?__ < 8 1/8>

explain why 506 eggs equal ____ dozen…ex: <42 1/6>

show you that they can manipulate information found in tables and graphs with a specific direction…ex: On a piece of graph paper, show how the number eating dinner at the same time increased or decreased over time…

measure perimeters for different shapes…ex: polygon, square, triangle and rectangle

using both estimation and the use of rulers in English and Metric units…

identify, describe and determine diameter, radius, chord and circumference of a circle…

tell you of the differences between two dimension and three dimensional objects…

show you that when applying the use of area and perimeter that they can use the concept

appropriately for the application…

explain why, with geometric figures, area is measured in linear units while volume is

measured in cubic units…

find the quotient and remainder with dividends of four or less digits and a divisor

of two or less digits…

solve problems of inches and parts of an inch, as well as feet, yards, miles, millimeters,

centimeters, meters and kilometers…

solve real-life applications with Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometers in familiar

situations…ex: water boiling and freezing of water and bodytemperature, etc…

demonstrate the principle of elapsed time within a twenty four-hour period, within an hour

and within a minute…ex: between two time periods how many minutes or

seconds have elapsed…use both digital and conventional (analog) clock faces…

identify and measure angles in a triangle with a protractor…ex: right, obtuse or acute…

show you their skill with coordinates and plotting using graph paper…

identify coordinates on a piece of graph paper…ex: 2,3 and 3,2 and 4,16 and 16,4

describe the difference between mean and mode as concepts of central tendency…

apply the use of data from…bar and line graphs…

identify and extend numerical and geometric patterns and arithmetic sequences…

Standards Of Learning “Parent Tips” from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

-Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

During this examination the children are asked to read passages from reports, fables, folktales, newspaper articles, fictional accounts of fictional characters, tables, charts, maps and occasionally fliers that announce upcoming events are used as sample passages. Keys to the assessment are the realization thatdifferent kinds of passages have different requirements and opinion is distinctly different from factual information. Words that are highlighted or underlined or italicized are intended to focus the reader on certain parts of the selections to choose “the best answer”. The use of analogy is limited to only a few questions. In most instances, the examination must be considered a test of reading comprehension, which is literally “an interpretation or an application of the skills of the act of reading for meaning”. The same A, B, C, D / F, G, H, J, format is used and no trick questions have been found over the course of the years.

give you examples of nonfiction materials…ex: biographies and informational texts…giving descriptions of real people, places and events…

recognize that captions and graphics under pictures often reveal much about a

passage… magazines display this most vividly…

tell you how chapter titles and headings of sections in a text predict and categorize

information…use any chapter book to assist if there is any problem…

make a prediction before reading then find facts that support their prediction as they read…

show you a cause and effect relationship in a passage…

tell you of a piece of the story that does not add suspense to the story…[Frequently SOL assessments ask…“Which is something that did not happened in the story?]”

tell you what the author hoped to accomplish with a text…ex: make us laugh, inform,

tell a nice story… then find evidence for their thought…

find a section in a passage that represents opinion and then facts that supports their thought…

give you a heading for a paragraph from a newspaper article…

replace words in a piece of text without changing its meaning…

insert words in a piece of text, without taking any out, that would completely change the

meaning…

identify the key sentences that give meaning to the title in a text while referring to

a numbered sentence… “Look at line 23 and tell me…” <the

examination often numbers sections of passages then refers to them in questions> “For questions 13 through 23 use paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 to…”

number paragraphs and sentences in a newspaper article…

look up something about Fredericksburg then go to a map and show you something

to the East, West, North and South of the city…<Frequently SOL assessment questions require that a map or chart be interpreted after a passage is read.>…

Standards of Learning “Parent Tips” from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

-Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

5th Grade English: Reading / Literature and Research

The format generally requires students to read a number of paragraphs then choose from multiple-choice answers to select the best answer possible. The selections are Fiction, Nonfiction and Poetry. The paragraphs are frequently numbered for reference purposes. The answers are lettered so that answers A, B, C and D correspond to question 1 (odd numbers questions)and answers F, G, H and J correspond to question 2 (even numbered questions). The areas being assessed are Word Analysis Strategies, Understanding A Variety of Printed and Resource Materials, and Understanding the Elements of Literature. The questions often guide students through the use of Underlined words, words inItalicprint, words in CAPITAL LETTERS and the word NOT. These cues have been found essential in selecting the “best answer” from among several good answers, by directing the reader. Failure to heed the cues is unwise.

show you examples of homonyms <words pronounced the same but spelled

differently>, synonyms <like meanings>, antonyms <opposite meanings>, and how context cues in a selection help to identify words with multiple meaning…ex: hear/here,no/know and read/red…

demonstrate use of an atlas, encyclopedia, glossary, dictionary and thesaurus…<it is

important that the useof the resources be understood>… the combination of two

or more of these resources have been found consistently in the examinations…

tell you examples of “fantasy” as an explanation of imaginary characters and events…ex:

Babe The Blue Ox, Cinderella, Comic Book Characters like Spiderman…

explain how they can find facts in historical fiction…ex: any book on Abraham Lincoln has

plenty of fact and fiction…[the key is to understand the basis of a fact]…

give you an inference from a selection from one of their favorite books that was not clear

to them before the book was read…

tell you a “sensory word” from a selection…[sight, sound, smell, taste]

show you prefixes, suffixes and root words…ex: <In the word improper, the “im” refers to

what?>… <In the story you just read, one of the characters was older than all the

rest, what is the suffix for older than all the rest?>…<What is the root word of oldest?>

## 5th Grade English:Writing

This examination will be administered during March 5th through7th of 2007. The examination assesses the skills and knowledge from the 4th and 5th grade Standards Of Learning and has two components:

1. A Direct Writing component uses a “writing prompt” to assess the children’s skills and the processes used in writing and
2. AMultiple Choice componentusing a series of drafts from fictional writers asking that the children respond to multiple choice questions regarding the drafts.

Standards of Learning “Parent Tips” from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

-Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

The questions on this examination are assessments of the skills and knowledge from the 4th and 5th grade Standards Of Learning. The assessment addresses Force, Motion and Energy, Life Processes, Living Systems, Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems, Earth Patterns/Cycles and Changes, Resources, and Scientific Investigations. The important aspect of this examination is its reliance upon logic to conclude the correct answer as it applied to pictures of situations and examples, graphs of data and understanding the scientific process.

demonstrate their skill with measuring devices…ex: thermometers, measuring cups and

rulers of different types…

tell you an appropriate measuring device for objects around the house…ex: a chair, a

handful of flowers, a vase full of water, their sister, a length of rope, the

temperature…

estimate volume and mass then determine the actual mass or volume of an object…

explain how sound travels in different mediums…ex: in water, in a solid, through the

air…the point is the relationships of sound waves to frequency and vibrations…try relating the circular waves found in a glass of water, created by striking it with a spoon, to how sound travels from a radio or TV across a room…

explain why sound travels more quickly through solids than other mediums…<compacted

molecules>

tell you how different instruments make sounds…ex: piano verses a trumpet…

explain how a prism and a microscope work…<reflection verses refraction is only one

difference>…

tell you what happens when light bounces off <mirror>, is bent by <prism> or passes

through an object <window>…ask When light is absorbed does it cause a

change in temperature?…ex: Use the mirror of your car or an object in the kitchen window for an obvious demonstration…

describe the three forms of matter… <solid, liquid, and gas>

define matter, molecules, elements, and how compounds are different…

explain how heat changes some matter quickly and only extreme heat affects other forms

of matter…ex: a wax candle, some water and a piece of rock…

give you the names of the five kingdoms of living things…ex: <monerans, protists, fungi,

plants and animals> …then focus on plants and animals <plants are either vascular or nonvascular> and <animals are either vertebrates or invertebrates>

give you two common examples of plants and animals…

explain “ecosystem”, the effects of pollution and its prevention from “run-off” and the

actions of man on these …

describe a marine “food web”…

describe how the preservation of marine resources effects the entire environment…

while focusing on the water cycle, describe changes caused by the actions of wind,

water, freezing and thawing, seasons and the actions of the Earth-moon-sun system…

discuss the “rock cycle” as part of the geologic formation of the earth…<focus on

evidence that fossils provide as proof that changes have occurred…

explain tectonic plate movement as a force of energy from within the earth…

name and define the 3 types of rock…<sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic>

relate the movement of the “plates” as a primary cause of changes…ex: <volcanic,

weathering and erosion>…

tell you of the structure of the Earth…<crust, mantle, inner and outer core>… by focusing

on the changes each causes the other and the effects on land and the ocean

floor…

differentiate between weathering and erosion…

show you examples of erosion at home…

tell you of how erosion can be halted…

explain how sediment is really weathered material that has been chemically or physically

altered…

Standards Of Learning “Parent Tips” from the Released Items of 1998 – 2006

-Based Upon A Collection of Frequently Asked Questions-

5th Grade History and Social Science

This is the fourth year that the 5th graders have been assessed in the area of Social Studies. The SOLs assess the children’s ability with interpreting maps, water forms, climatic features and historical events from pre-Columbia time to 1877. Additionally, the children’s skills with interpreting ideas and events from a historical perspective has been enhanced through their understanding of primary and secondary source documents that impacted America through 1877. Graphics, maps, historical sequences, geographic features and understanding of essential vocabulary associated with American history are central to success with these SOLs.

Have your child –

demonstrate their knowledge of major U.S. river basins, lakes, mountain ranges & oceans…

tell you about the major Indian tribes by region…[ Kwakiutl, Inuit, Sioux, Pueblo & Iroquois]

describe the motivating forces, obstacles and accomplishments of exploration…

name the famous explorers matched to their European Countries and exploration…

explain the difficulties and advantages that exploration caused…[language, land,

competition, disease]

distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude…[repeated map

references are to be expected that include cardinal and intermediate directions]