AP US HISTORY
September 26- 30 2016
Okay if you have not heard apparently the discussion of Midterm Exemptions was not passed by the SCS (not a surprise). That's okay b/c it is a long way off!!!!
Beginning Historical Period 4 1800 --1848 However we will not have a single test over this Time Period because it is simply too long and detailed. We will have a unit test later this week see below for details.
Hope you didn’t forget the quia.com quiz from the weekend…of course if you’re only seeing this Monday morning then you’re already too late
- Analyze the causes and effects of the War of 1812 (NAT-2) (POL-2) (WOR-3,4)
PPT Lecture-discussion (SL.CCR.1)
I Chronological Reasoning (3)
II Comparison and context (5)
III Crafting Arguments (6,7)
IV Historical Interpretation (9)
- Some historians have called the War of 1812 America’s “second revolution” while others have termed it “the forgotten war.” There is strong legitimacy for both monikers. The defeat or at least not loss to the British did justify the nation’s existence. In addition, people tend to lose sight of this conflict between the Revolution and Civil War.
- The causes of the war really go back to the Washington’s years and his desire to walk the middle ground of neutrality. Adams of course fought an undeclared war with the French that war largely inconclusive. Jefferson (after the moderate success against the Barbary Pirates) completed the Louisiana Purchase party out of foreign policy concerns that a strong European power would situate itself across the Mississippi River. But once again, events in Europe intensified as Britain and France returned to war after a brief cease-fire called the Peace of Amiens 1802.
- American foreign policy has always claimed the right of this nation to freely trade on the high seas. Now, in an epic decade of war, the US will no longer be able to straddle the line and the pressure for war will become too intense to resist
Foreign Policy Issues 1803 - 1808
- During the Napoleonic Wars France had largely defeated all of the major powers with the exception of Great Britain. Napoleon discovered as Hitler will later that defeat of Britain must start with defeat of the British Navy. This Napoleon could not do following the Battle of Trafalgar October 1805 when the cream of the fleet was destroyed. His response was the Continental System, an attempt to blockade Britain (which is of course tough without a fleet but Napoleon was not an admiral after all.) Continental System would allow no European “ally” (those defeated and integrated into Napoleon’s empire) to trade outside of the continent. This was a shot at Britain that mistakenly hit America too. The British counter-attack was called the Orders in Council 1806 that would not allow any French client state to trade outside of the continent. And again, this was dreadful for Americans because this got in the way of all US import and export markets. Both Britain and France claimed the right to sink any ship violating the blockades.
- As stated before, American position was that we claimed the right to trade as neutrals and freedom of the seas. This however was impossible without running the risk of war with one or the other European combatants. Jefferson’s decision was that the US will abide by both countries’ demands. This was what Jefferson announced with the signing of the Embargo Act of 1807. This was the result of several acts of impressments by the British and the outright attack in American waters of an American warship the Chesapeake by the British Leopard. In 1807 some of the acts of impressment British ships captured who they believed to be runaway British sailors executing them on the spot.
- Jefferson called this “peaceable coercion” feeling that both sides would be so hurt from the lack of trade that they would be “coerced to end their blockades. However, his actions severely crippled the economy. In some circles talk of secession by New Englanders was rampant. The Hartford Convention later during the war was a manifestation of this anger. The legacy of the Embargo Act was one of the darkest moments in Jefferson’s Presidency. He was forced to use the US Navy to stop our own ships from trade.
- Some sailors attempt to run our own blockade of ourselves by a process known as “broken voyages” whereby ships would be sailed to French islands and they would remove cargo and leave payment similar to silent bartering. This too was deemed illegal and anyone attempting to do this had their cargo seized.
- The embargo was an unpopular and costly failure. It hurt the American economy far more than the British or French, and resulted in widespread smuggling. Exports fell from $108 million in 1807 to just $22 million in 1808. Farm prices fell sharply. Shippers also suffered. Harbors filled with idle ships and nearly 30,000 sailors found themselves jobless
- The Embargo Act or “peaceable coercion” was a nearly revocation of trade. The trade hurt the British economy in the long run and ours in the short run. Both the US and Britain searched and found new markets. But none was as profitable as with each other! This was actually the origins of America’s interest in the Far East.
Madison’s Presidency 1808 – 1816
Unlike Jefferson, we will not delve deeply into the Madison years on domestic policy as his administration was generally shaped by the War of 1812. The pull toward war became irresistible for Madison both because of foreign policy developments and domestic intrigues
Tecumseh and Native attacks in the Ohio Valley and Mississippi River Valley
- Tecumseh and his brother known as “The Prophet", advocated a return of the Shawnee and other American Indians to their ancestral lifestyle and rejection of the colonists and Americans. He attracted a large following among Indians who had already suffered major epidemics and dispossession of their lands. With Americans continuing to encroach on Indian territory after the British ceded the Ohio Valley to the new United States.
- There were rumors that the British were inspiring and arming Native to rise against American control of the region. Of course, the British style maintained forts in the west violating the Treaty of Paris 1783. . With a vision of establishing an independent American Indian nation east of the Mississippi, Tecumseh worked to recruit tribes to the confederacy from the southern United States. The Prophet went to war with confederacy warriors although much outnumbered by an attack by future President William Henry Harrison and his forces, and was defeated in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe.
- Once the War of 1812 erupted Tecumseh and his confederacy allied with the British in Canada and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit. They sought British support for continuing to defend their lands against the Americans. Harrison led a much larger counter assault and invaded Canada. The British faded away before his forces, but Tecumseh and the outnumbered Shawnee Confederacy fought on. Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames.
The "war hawks" were a group of congressman who put pressure on President James Madison to declare war against Britain in 1812.The war hawks tended to be from southern and western states, and were prompted by expansionist tendencies, in particular the desire to add Canada and Florida to the territory of the United States. In December 1811 the U.S. Congress elected Henry Clay of Kentucky as speaker of the house, and Clay pushed the agenda of war against Britain.
- Non-Intercourse Act 1809 was an attempt by the Madison administration to address the grievances of American farmers and business interests by restarting European trade. While Jefferson’s embargo precluded trade with the whole continent of Europe as a way to avoid impressments, the Non-Intercourse Act (I know I know…..hahaha) was designed restart trade with all except Britain and France. This was of course largely ineffective as the blockade was still in place.
- In one of the greatest diplomatic blunders in American History Congress then passed Macon's Bill No. 2.This policy reopened trade with France and Britain. It stated, however, that if either Britain or France agreed to respect America's neutral rights, the United States would immediately stop trade with the other nation. This was a problem because Napoleon seized on this new policy in an effort to entangle the United States in his war with Britain. He announced a repeal of all French restrictions on American trade. Even though France continued to seize American ships and cargoes, President Madison snapped at the bait. In early 1811, he cut off trade with Britain and recalled the American minister.
- For 19 months, the British went without American trade. Food shortages, mounting unemployment, and increasing inventories of unsold manufactured goods finally convinced Britain to end their restrictions on American trade. But the decision came too late. On June 1, 1812, President Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war. A divided House and Senate concurred. Obviously the decision to make war on Britain was an example of poor communications and an overly patriotic rush to war; one that very nearly cost this nation its freedom.
The Coming of the War
- As we saw yesterday, The United States was woefully unprepared for war. The army consisted of fewer than 7,000 soldiers, few trained officers, and a navy with just 6 warships. In contrast, Britain had nearly 400 warships and while their army was weakened by nearly 11 years of war, they were much improved from the Revolutionary War days.
- The American strategy clearly reflected a belief that Britain had no ability to fight a two-continent war. In addition, the influence of the war hawks upon American strategy was clearly discernable. The American strategy called for a three-pronged invasion of Canada and heavy harassment of British shipping. The attack on Canada, however, was a disastrous failure. At Detroit, 2,000 American troops surrendered to a much smaller British and Indian force. An attack across the Niagara River, near Buffalo, resulted in 900 American prisoners of war. Along Lake Champlain, a third army retreated into American territory after failing to cut undefended British supply lines.
The Tide Turned….a little
- A series of unexpected victories at the end of the year raised American spirits. On September 10, 1813, America won a major naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie near Put-in-Bay at the western end of Lake Erie. Oliver Hazard Perry, who had built a fleet at Presque Isle (Erie, Pennsylvania) successfully engaged six British ships. Though Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, was disabled in the fighting, he went on to capture the British fleet.
- Also in the area near Canada On October 5, 1813, Major General William Henry Harrison (future President) overtook the retreating British army and their Indian allies. The Battle of the Thames marked the end of native and British influence in that region.
The War Enters a Dangerous Phase
- In the spring of 1814, Britain defeated Napoleon in Europe, freeing 18,000 veteran British troops to participate in an invasion of the United States. The British planned to invade the United States at three points: upstate New York across the Niagara River and Lake Champlain, the Chesapeake Bay, and New Orleans.
- On the Niagara frontNiagara, however, American forces, outnumbered more than three to one, halted Britain's invasion from the north. Britain. Once again more able leadership and knowledge of the terrain turned the tide. However the thrust toward the Chesapeake was devastating.
- Britain then landed 4,000 soldiers on the Chesapeake Bay coast and marched on Washington, D.C., where untrained soldiers lacking uniforms and standard equipment were protecting the capital. The result was chaos. President Madison narrowly escaped capture by British forces. On August 24, 1814, the British humiliated the nation by capturing and burning Washington, D.C. This came to be called the “Bladensburg Races” and is a black mark on American military history. From there the remains of the British Army attacked Baltimore but, lacking strength (a freak tornado spawned by an hurricane wiped out part of the British force….hand of God….you decide) they were repulsed. Francis Scott Key was so moved by the American victory that he wrote a poem entitled "The Star-Spangled Banner" on the back of an old envelope. The song was destined to become the young nation's national anthem.
- To the south a huge fleet was poised to attack New Orleans country still faced grave threats in the South. On January 8, 1815, the British fleet and a battle-tested 10,000-man army finally attacked New Orleans. To defend the city, Tennessean Andrew Jackson assembled a ragtag army, including French pirates, Choctaw Indians, western militia, and freed slaves. Although British forces outnumbered Americans by more than 2 to 1, American artillery and sharpshooters stopped the invasion. American losses totaled only 8 dead and 13 wounded, while British casualties were 2,036. As embarrassing as the burning of Washington DC had been this was one of the most lopsided victories in US history. The perceptive student might have noticed that this happened after the treaty was signed ending the war. Again, poor communications was the culprit.
The Effects of the War and the Treaty of Ghent 1815
- The British were convinced that the American war was so difficult and costly that nothing would be gained from further fighting, agreed to return to the conditions that existed before the war on the matter of territory and the Americans agreed. Ironically none of the causes of the war were even addressed as Britain had already disavowed impressments before the first shots and the US abandoned any claims to Canada.
- However there was land to be gained from the Indians who reluctantly ceded most of their lands north of the Ohio River and in southern and western Alabama to the U.S. government. Perhaps the biggest loser was sad old Spain. The war allowed the United States to rewrite its boundaries with Spain and solidify control over the lower Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Although the United States did not defeat the British Empire, it had fought the world's strongest power to a draw. Spain recognized the significance of this fact, and in 1819 Spanish leaders abandoned Florida and agreed to an American boundary running clear to the Pacific Ocean (The Adams-Onis Treaty and the Transcontinental Treaty)
- The Federalist Party never recovered from its opposition to the war. Many Federalists believed that the War of 1812 was fought to help Napoleon in his struggle against Britain, and they opposed the war by refusing to pay taxes, boycotting war loans, and refusing to furnish troops. In December 1814, delegates from New England gathered in Hartford, Connecticut to discuss seceding from the US and forming a pro-British New England….how ironic!
The most important phase of the early Supreme Court was under the Chief Justice John Marshall. During the Early Republic Period the Marshall Court established an important trend of rulings that generally favored Federal power over states rights and protected the idea of contracts in civil cases. The rulings were an example of Nationalism because the cases tended to weaken advocates of state's rights.
Here is the assignment: Find the information below and make a chart that answers the questions about the given cases. They should be easy to find as they are all famous cases. Regrettably your textbook has very few of these.
The CaseThe RulingSignificance
1. Marbury v Madison (1803)
2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1821)
3. Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
4. Dartmouth College v. Woodard (1819)
5. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
6. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
7. Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY
- Examine key characteristics of the Era of Good Feelings and explain why the above term is a misnomer (NAT-2) (PEO-3) (WOR-2) (WTX-2)
- Analyze political cartoon and artwork as partners (CUL-2) (NAT-2)
PPT and videoLecture-discussion (SL.CCR.1)
Discussion groups (SL Standard 1)
I Chronological Reasoning (3)
II Comparison and context (5)
III Crafting Arguments (6,7)
IV Historical Interpretation (9)
- This week we transition out of the Early Republic Period into the more expansive Antebellum Period. The painting below was called American Progress. It is seen as a visual representation of Manifest Destiny, an ultra-nationalist ideology of territorial expansion. The irony lies in the fact that the Era of Good Feelings was a highly nationalistic period embodied by Manifest Destiny. Yet, Missouri’s petition to join the union will raise the specter of civil war because it reawakened the slavery debate.
- The Era of Good feeling resulted in some economic gains and that too will be fraught with irony. The same rapid expansion will also create the first major depression in 1819.
- One of the main reasons why this period earned the misnomer
was because it featured the demise of the Federalist Party as a