Government 1St Semester Final Study Guide

Government 1St Semester Final Study Guide

Government 1st Semester Final Study Guide

Chapter 1, Section 1:

  1. Population, Territory, Sovereignty and Government
  2. State has supreme and absolute authority within its borders
  3. Institution which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people
  4. King, Queen, or Monarch is chosen by god or gods, SIN
  5. A political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws
  6. Agreement about basic beliefs
  7. Thomas Hobbes/John Locke-people willingly give power to gov’t, gov’t will protect the people

Chapter 1, Section 2:

  1. All key power is given to the central government
  2. Division of power between national and state governments
  3. Loose union of independent states
  4. Effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
  5. A plan that provides the rules for government
  6. Interpret and apply constitution, defines the extent and limit of government power and rights of citizens
  7. Constitution has authority to place specific limits on the government

Chapter 1, Section 3:

  1. System of government rule is by the people
  2. USA-people elect representatives and they make laws
  3. Small group of people
  4. Rule is by one person or a single individual
  5. King, Queen, or Emperor exercises supreme power
  6. Greek philosopher/system of government
  7. Founding Fathers/voters are the source of government authority

Chapter 1, Section 4:

  1. Communist nations
  2. Free enterprise system, philosophy
  3. Government owns the means of production, determines the use of resources, and distributes the products and wages
  4. Study of human efforts to satisfy seemingly unlimited wants through the use of limited resources
  5. French term, hands-off approach

Chapter 2, Section 1:

  1. Signed in 1620, first example of self-government
  2. People elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
  3. Government Is not absolute
  4. 1215, limited power of monarch (government)
  5. 1636, first basic laws
  6. 1688, William and Mary, limit the power of gov’t
  7. 1639, First constitution
  8. Each branch of government has its own powers and does its own thing

Chapter 2, Section 2:

  1. Thomas Jefferson
  2. Prohibiting trade
  3. John Hancock
  4. Money a government collects from taxes or other sources
  5. 1773, Colonists dressed up as Indians and dumped tea in Boston Harbor
  6. (1) Statement of purposes and basic human rights (2) specific complaints about King George III (3) determination to separate

Chapter 2, Section 3:

  1. Uprising of Massachusetts farmers/stronger central government
  2. Approve, 9/13 states
  3. Philadelphia, 1787; changed from Articles of Confederation to Constitution

Chapter 2, Section 4:

  1. Trade between (among) states
  2. Federalist (BOR was not necessary); Anti-federalist (BOR was needed)
  3. Create bicameral legislature: House and Senate
  4. Slaves-counted for purposes of representation (House) and for taxes
  5. 80 essays helped to promote the Constitution
  6. 1787, September 17
  7. James Madison

Chapter 3, Section 1:

  1. States why Constitution was written
  2. Rule by the people
  3. Supreme Court can declare laws Constitutional or not
  4. To change the constitution (27)
  5. 7, set up the government
  6. Executive branch
  7. Judicial branch
  8. Division of power between national and state government
  9. Legislative branch
  10. Supremacy clause
  11. 7000
  12. One branch has some control over the other branches

Chapter 3, Section 2: Three Branches of Government

  1. House of Representatives
  2. Powers directly given or written down in the Constitution; expressed powers for Congress are found in Article 1, Section 8, #1-18.
  3. States that Congress can stretch its powers past that of what it was given in the Constitution; Article 1, Section 8, #18 and given by court case McCulloch v. Maryland
  4. Senate

Chapter 3, Section 3: Amending the Constitution

  1. Deal between President and head of another foreign nation that does not need Senate Consent
  2. Currently 7 years
  3. 2/3 vote of each house of Congress; Constitutional Convention called by 2/3 of states
  4. A federal official is accused of committing crimes
  5. ¾ state legislators; ¾ state constitutional conventions

Chapter 3, Section 4: Amendments

  1. First 10 amendments to the Constitution
  2. Freedom of Speech, Press, Petition, Assembly, and Religion
  3. Gave 18-20 year olds the right to vote

Chapter 16, Section 1: Development of Parties

  1. Group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections, control government, and influence government policies
  2. Political parties basic beliefs about the government
  3. Third party that focuses on one major moral, economic, or social issue
  4. When the government is controlled by one party, or the party is essentially the government; found in autocratic states
  5. Multi-party systems where political parties will have to combine forces to make a majority
  6. No matter how many people run, only one person wins office
  7. Any party that is not a major party
  8. Focuses on changes overall in society, such as Communism or Socialism
  9. When religion dominates government, such as Iran
  10. When a party breaks away from a major party to start its own; Teddy Roosevelt and the Bull Moose Party

Chapter 16, Section 2: Party Organization

  1. Basic local area for voting, 200-1500 people
  2. Adjourning precincts come together
  3. When you are non-affiliated with a political party
  4. When you give special favors/jobs to those who help you get elected

Chapter 16, Section 3: Nominating Candidates

  1. People running for President/VP from a particular party; chosen at the national conventions by delegates
  2. All voters may participate but can only vote for one particular party
  3. Voters can only vote for candidate within the party they are registered with
  4. Political Cartoonist who drew and popularized the Democratic Donkey and Republican elephant
  5. Group from 50 states that run the political parties between national conventions
  6. Election in which party members vote for people to run in the general elections
  7. Party’s statement of beliefs, principles, and positions on vital issues
  8. Individual parts of the platform
  9. Like-minded political people meet together to openly discuss and vote for delegates during the primary season