Forensic Science Mid Term Study Guide

Forensic Science Mid Term Study Guide

Forensic Science Mid Term Study Guide

  1. ______science seeks to use physical principles to obtain a desired goal.
  2. In 1732 this scientist discovered the human nervous system transmits information electronically which eventually led to the development of the lie detector. ______
  3. ______developed spectroscopy in 1859.
  4. In 1910 he opened the first forensic laboratory opened in France. ______
  5. In the case ______the courts said for a procedure, principle, or technique to be admissible it must be generally accepted by the scientific community.
  6. What are the five components of the mechanical system of a compound microscope?
  7. Whorls, ellipses, and triangles refer to this type evidence. ______
  8. Why must the chain of custody be maintained for all evidence?
  9. What is the difference between evidence with class characteristics and individual characteristics?
  10. What kind of glass is used in the front windshield of automobiles?
  11. The lines radiating out from the center are called ______fractures, the circular lines are called ______fractures.
  12. How can you determine in which order the breaks in a window occurred first?
  13. The major question to be answered by a forensic pathologist is ______.
  14. For transparent objects the light source is placed underneath. This is called ______illumination.
  15. Immediately following death the muscles relax and then become rigid. This is called ______mortis.
  16. ______mortis is useful in determining if a body has been moved or changed position after death.
  17. What are the five categories a death may fall into?
  18. ______mortis is the process in which the body loses heat after death until it reaches the same temperature as its surroundings.
  19. As a general rule, beginning an hour after death the body loses heat at a rate of approximately ______degrees per hour until the environmental temperature is reached.
  20. Where is the vitreous fluid found?
  21. When objects are not transparent the light must be placed above the object. This is ______illumination.
  22. The bending of a light wave because of a change in velocity is called _____.
  23. The ______microscope is the most commonly used and most versatile microscope used in forensic lab.
  24. The ______is the outer layer of the hair.
  25. The ______collects light rays from the base illuminator and concentrates them on the object.
  26. The three types of medulla are ___, ______, and __.
  27. The ______is a cellular column running through the center of the hair. In some animals this column takes up a large part of the hairs diameter.
  28. The most common plant fiber is ______.
  29. Mohair and cashmere come from what animals?
  30. Most human hair has ______medulla.
  31. If the object stays in focus when switching objectives the microscope is said to be ______.
  32. The first coat of automotive is the ______.
  33. A ______can be defined as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other higher order animals.
  34. The source of most analgesic narcotics is ______. It is a gummy, milky juice from the unripe pod of the poppy plant.
  35. The most commonly used depressant is ______.
  36. ____ is made by reacting morphine with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride.
  37. The most common hallucinogenic drug is ______.
  38. The ______microscopes are used to identify minerals and synthetic fibers.
  39. What are five things that can affect insect activity on a corpse?
  40. Why would you want to know the potassium level in eye of a corpse?
  41. _____ is synthesized from lysergic acid, a substance derived from ergot, a type of fungus that attacks grasses and grains.
  42. Anabolic steroids are synthetic compounds that are chemically related to the male sex hormone ______.
  43. ______is a drug extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca.
  44. Liver cancer, infertility, diminished sex drive, halting of bone growth, mood swings, and depression are side effects of the use of this substance. ______
  45. The DUQUENOIS – LEVINE test turns purple in contact with ______.
  46. VAN URK – turns purple/blue with contact with ______.
  47. SCOTT TEST – turns blue in contact with ______.
  48. The upper side of the marijuana leaf has short, distinctively shaped hairs called ______hairs.
  49. Who do toxicologist work for?
  50. ______is the most widely used drug in the U.S.
  51. ______percent of automobile deaths are alcohol related.

45. ______The central part of the brain is involved in ______

  1. ______The _____ is the first part affected by alcohol.
  2. ______The blood-alcohol concentration is ______to the

concentration of alcohol in the brain.

  1. ______95 - 98 % of the alcohol is oxidized into ______.
  2. ______Oxidation happens in the ______.
  3. ______carry blood toward the heart.
  4. ______are the smallest blood vessels.
  5. The ______are where gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
  6. The brachial tube is also called the ______.
  7. Why are anticoagulants added to blood samples?
  8. ______The legal limit for percent blood-alcohol concentration is ______.
  9. A ______is a compound capable of donating a hydrogen ion to

another compound.

  1. A compound with a pH of ______is neutral.
  2. The ______test is used to detect the presence of heavy metals.
  3. A level of ______percent carboxyhemoglobin is usually fatal in most people.
  4. ______is the most commonly used method of drug confirmation.

61. List three factors that influence the rate at which alcohol is absorbed.

62. What are the two mechanisms used by the body to rid itself of alcohol?

63. What is horizontal nystagmus gaze and why is it important?

64. What is important about the Schmerber v. California case?

65. Describe the three most widely used screening test for drugs.

  1. Why would a toxicologist be interested in the amount of carbon monoxide in

the blood of a person that was found in a burned house?

Describe the symptoms of the following toxins

67. Arsonic

68. Atropine

69. Carbon monoxide

70. Food poisoning

71. . Cyanide

72. Nicotine

73. Strychnine

  1. Most poisoning deaths are from which group of drugs?
  2. About how many deaths occur each year from poisoning in the Unites States?

76. What category do the following drugs belong? Narcotic, depressant, hallucinogen,

or stimulant.

phencyclidine codeinebarbiturates amphetamine morphine nicotine

alcohol heroin methadone

marijuana cocaine oxycontin

LSD club drugs