Era of Goodfeelings - the Eight Years of James Monroe S Presidency, 1817 To1825, When The

Era of Goodfeelings - the Eight Years of James Monroe S Presidency, 1817 To1825, When The

US History

Fort Burrows

11.3 – Unity and Division

Despite some tensions between different sections, the nation enjoyed an “era of good feelings” after the War of 1812.

Era of GoodFeelings - the eight years of James Monroe’s presidency, 1817 to1825, when the

democratic republicans dominated thenation’s politics

sectionalism - loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country

American System - program for economic growth promoted by Henry Clay in the early 1800s;

called for high tariffs on imports and federal funds to improve transportation

internal improvements - improvements to roads, bridges, and canals

McCulloch v. Maryland - 1819 Supreme Court case which ruled that states hadno right to

interfere with federal institutions within their borders

Gibbons v. Ogden - 1824 Supreme Court case which upheld the power ofthe federal government to

regulate interstate commerce

interstate commerce - trade between different states

advocate – person who argues for or supports a cause or policy

ambitious – having a desire to be successful

charter – to establish

dispute – an argument that often involves fighting for control of a thing or place

regulate – to make rules or laws that control something

stronghold – an area where the people have the same beliefs or values

In Charleston, a cook named Abigail Jones put her advertisement in the news paper early. Turtle meat would be available for sale on July 4 only. When Americans celebrated the Fourth of July in the early 1800’s, turtle soup was one of the two most popular holiday foods.

What was the other? For a hot summer holiday like the Fourth, Americans loved the rare treat of ice cream. In Boston, a Mr. Shindles advertised “ice creams, of the best quality” in four flavors. At Vauxhall gardens in Charleston, sellers warned people to come early, before all of the ice cream was eaten.

After the War of 1812, Fourth of July celebrations became more popular than ever. Americans were proud of their country. They were especially proud that the nation was growing rapidly. Improved transportation allowed the opening of new lands to settlers. New industries were appearing. In Congress, a new generation of political leaders sought to direct this expansion.

An Era of Good Feelings

In 1816, Republican James Monroe easily defeated the Federalist, Rufus King

Election confirmed how seriously the Federalist party had declined in popularity

Monroe was the last Revolutionary War officer to become President

Monroe was 60 years old, wore dated clothes and a powdered wig

Americans like his ‘old-fashioned’ ways

He made a goodwill tour of the country and created a new sense of national unity

This time period was called the “Era of Good Feelings”

Monroe ran for a second term in 1820 and no candidate opposed him – Federalist party had disappeared

Three Sectional Leaders

Conflicts between political parties declined but disputes between sections of the nations increased

3 ambitious men took center stage in Congress

Each represented a different section of the country and played key roles for 30 yrs

Calhoun of the South

John C. Calhoun, from South Carolina, spoke for SOUTH

Calhoun had immense energy and was nicknamed “young Hercules”

He was slim and handsome, had deep set eyes and a high forehead

Supported the War of 1812

Defendedof SLAVERY

Opposed policies that would strengthen the power of the federal gov’t

Webster of the North

Daniel Webster, of New Hampshire, spoke for the NORTH

Webster was the most skillful public speaker of his time

He was an impressive sight – a “great cannon loaded to the lips”

Opposed the War of 1812

Felt slavery was EVIL

Wanted gov’t to take a larger role in building the nation’s economy

Clay of the West

Henry Clay, from Kentucky, spoke for the WEST

He charmed both friends and rivals – “Gallant Harry of the West”

Clay was leader of the War Hawks

Pushed for the War of 1812

Favored a more active role for the central government

During his long service to his country, Henry Clay was a firm defender of the Union. Clay helped guide his country through some of its most difficult crises. Three times he helped resolve bitter disputes that threatened to tear the nation apart. One office that eluded him was the presidency. He was defeated three times in efforts to become President. Yet, he was proud that he had held to his principles. Once, when asked if he was bitter about his failure to become President, he responded: “No, I had rather be right than President.”

¿¿ What was Calhoun’s (SOUTH) view ? ______.

What was Webster’s (NORTH) view ? ______.

What was Clay’s view (WEST) ? ______.

Helping American Businesses Grow

After the War of 1812, Calhoun, Webster and Clay had to deal with serious economic issues

The US economy faced severe problems due to the lack of a national bank

The charter for the Bank of the US ran out in 1811

The economy suffered without the Bank to lend money and regulate the nation’s money supply

Republicans like TJ and Madison opposed a national bank but many believed it was needed by 1816

They supported a law to charter the second Bank of the US

By lending money and restoring order to nation’s money supply, the Bank helped American businesses grow

Protection From Foreign Competition

Another problem facing the US was foreign competition – Britain!

Embargo Act and War of 1812 kept British goods out of the US

In response, the US established their own mills and factories and the industry grew until 1815

A Flood of British Goods

With the end of the War of 1812, British goods flooded the US

British could make and sell goods more cheaply

British manufacturers sold cloth in the US for less than it cost to make it hoping to hook Americans and put rivals out of business

Congress Passes a Protective Tariff

The British plan caused dozens of New England businesses to fail

Angry owners asked Congress to place a protective tariff on all goods imported from Europe

Congress passed the tariff of 1816 which greatly raised taxes on imports

The increase made imported goods far more expensive than US goods

Higher tariffs led to angry protests from southerners who had few factories

They did not benefit from the tariff and bought many British goods

Southerners felt the tariff made northerners rich at the expense of the South

¿¿ How did the Tariff of 1816 affect…

the North ? ______.

the South ? ______.

Clay’s American System

The bitter dispute over tariffs reflected the growth of sectionalism

Sectionalism is loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the whole nation

Americans identified themselves as southerners, northerners and westerners

Henry Clay wanted to promote economic growth for ALL sections

His program was called the American System

-supported effort to charter a new bank

-called for high tariffs on imports

-urged Congress to use money from tariffs to build roads, bridges, canals

American System never fully went into effect so tariffs remained high and little money was spent on internal improvements

The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power

After Congress chartered the second Bank of the US, Maryland tried to tax the bank to drive it out of the state

James McCulloch, the Bank cashier, refused to pay the tax

In the case McCulloch vs. Marylandin 1819, the Court ruled that the states had NO right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders

The ruling strengthened the federal power and allowed the Bank of the US to continue, which helped the economy expand

In Gibbons vs. Ogden in 1824, the Court upheld the power of the federal gov’t to regulate trade between states

Court struck down a NY law that tried to control steamboat travel to NJ

Only the federal gov’t had the power to regulate interstate commerce

This decision helped the economy by making it easier for gov’t to regulate trade

1. What role did sectionalism play in the nation during the Era of Good Feelings ?


2. How did Congress help American industry after the War of 1812 ?


3. What was Henry Clay’s American System ?


4. How did the Supreme Court give more power to the federal government ?


1 of 11.3 Printer Notes FEB 2017