Earth Science Final Project

Chapter 2 Volcanoes

  1. Why does the horizontal scale of a Mercator projection increase with latitude?
  2. Where on Earth do most volcanoes occur? Explain your answer.
  3. Explain in your own words the meaning of a contour line, contour interval, relief, and topographic map.
  4. Why do silica-poor magmas produce broad volcanoes with gentle slopes while high-silica magma tends to form volcanic domes with steep sides?
  5. Sketch a contour map of a volcano that shows: a gentle slope, a steep slope, a nearly vertical cliff, and a crater or depression at the top
  6. For a cinder cone and a shield volcano, sketch a topographic map to show what the volcano would look like from above.
  7. Name two factors that influence the viscosity of a lava flow.
  8. Describe two ways in which lava flows can be controlled:
  9. Explain how topography influences volcanic flows.
  10. How does the volume of an eruption affect the area covered?
  11. Why might a lahar (mudflow of volcanic debris and water) affect a community more severely than a lava flow?
  12. Name two factors that can affect the distance that volcanic ash can travel:
  13. How does the silica content of magma affect how explosive a volcano can be?
  14. In your own words, compare the sizes of the areas affected by lava, pyroclastic flows, and ash falls.
  15. Why do the eruptions in Hawaii differ from Mt. St. Helens eruption?
  16. Do volcanic eruptions increase or decrease the temperature of the Earth?
  17. Can monitoring equipment be used to prevent a volcano from erupting? In your answer explain what monitoring equipment can do.
  18. Describe three methods of monitoring an active volcano. Which monitoring system is a) least reliable, b) most dangerous, and c) most useful?
  19. Consider what you know about volcanic hazards. Why is it important to study rocks in your area?