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<emph rend="bold">CANNED FRUITS</emph>

<emph rend="bold">GENERAL RULES</emph>

<p>All fruits should, if possible, be freshly picked for preserving, canning, and jelly making. No imperfect fruit should be canned or preserved. Gnarly fruit may be used for jellies or marmalades by cutting out defective portions. Bruised spots should be cut out of peaches and pears. In selecting small-seeded fruits, like berries, for canning, those having a small proportion of seed to pulp should be chosen. In dry seasons berries have a larger proportion of seeds to pulp than in a wet or normal season, and it is not wise to can or preserve such fruit unless the seeds are removed. The fruit should be rubbed through a sieve that is fine enough to keep back the seeds. The strained pulp can be preserved as a pur&eacute;e or marmalade.</p>

<p>When fruit is brought into the house put it where it will keep cool and crisp until you are ready to use it.</p>

<p>Begin by having the kitchen swept and dusted thoroughly, that there need not be a large number of mold spores floating about. Dust with a damp cloth. Have plenty of hot water and pans in which jars and utensils may be sterilized. Have at hand all necessary utensils, towels, sugar, etc.</p>

<p>Prepare only as much fruit as can be cooked while it still retains its color and crispness. Before beginning to pare fruit have some syrup ready, if that is to be used, or if sugar is to be added to the fruit have it weighed or measured.</p>

<p>Decide upon the amount of fruit you will cook at one time, then have two bowls--one for the sugar and one for the fruit--that will hold just the quantity of each. As the fruit is pared or hulled, as the case may be, drop it into its measuring bowl. When the measure is full put the fruit and sugar in the preserving kettle. While this is cooking another measure may be prepared and put in the second preserving kettle. In this way the fruit is cooked quickly and put in the jars and sealed at once, leaving the pans ready to sterilize another set of jars.</p>

<p>The preserving kettle should be porcelain-lined, and no iron or tin utensils should be used, as the fruit acids attack these metals and so give a bad color and metallic taste to the food.</p>

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<emph rend="bold">STERILIZING JARS, ETC.</emph>

<p>The success of canning depends upon absolute sterilization and not upon the amount of sugar or cooking. Any proportion of sugar may be used, or fruit may be canned without the addition of any sugar.</p>

<p>It is most important that the jars, covers, and rubber rings be in perfect condition. Examine each jar and cover to see that there is no defect in it. Use only fresh rubber rings, for if the rubber is not soft and elastic the sealing will not be perfect. Each year numbers of jars of fruit are lost because of the false economy in using an old ring that has lost its softness and elasticity.</p>

<p>Have two pans partially filled with cold water. Put some jars in one, laying them on their sides, and some covers in the other. Place the pans on the stove where the water will heat to the boiling point. The water should boil at least ten or fifteen minutes. Have on the stove a shallow milk pan in which there is about two inches of boiling water. Sterilize the cups, spoons, and funnel, if you use one, by immersing in boiling water for a few minutes. When ready to put the prepared fruit in the jars slip a broad skimmer under a jar and lift it and drain free of water.</p>

<p>There are several methods of canning; the housekeeper can use that method which is most convenient.</p>

<p>The three easiest and best methods are: Cooking the fruit in jars in an oven; cooking the fruit in jars in boiling water; and stewing the fruit before it is put in the jars.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNING FRUIT BAKED IN OVEN</emph>

<p>In this method the work is easily and quickly done and the fruit retains its shape, color and flavor. Particularly nice for berries.</p>

<p>Sterilize jars and utensils. Make the syrup; prepare the fruit the same as for cooking. Fill the hot jars with the fruit, drained, and pour in enough hot syrup to fill the jar solidly. Run the handle of a silver spoon around the inside of the jar. Place the hot jars, uncovered, and the covers, in a moderate oven.</p>

<p>Cover the bottom of the oven with a sheet of asbestos, the kind plumbers employ in covering pipes, or put into the oven shallow pans in which there are about two inches of boiling water. Cook berries to the boiling point or until the bubbles in the syrup just rise to the top; cook larger fruits,

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eight to ten minutes or according to the fruit. Remove from the oven, slip on rubber, first dipped in boiling water, then fill the jar with boiling syrup. Cover and seal. Place the jars on a board and out of a draft of air. If the screw covers are used tighten them after the glass has cooled.</p>

<p>Large fruits, such as peaches, pears, quince, crab-apples, etc., will require about a pint of syrup to each quart jar of fruit. The small fruit will require a little over half a pint of syrup.</p>


<p>Pick over, wash and drain four quarts of large, perfect cranberries; or stem and then stone four pounds of large cherries, use a cherry pitter so cherries remain whole. Place a tablespoon of hot water in a jar, then alternately in layers cherries or cranberries and sugar (with sugar on top), cover closely. This amount will require four pounds of sugar. Bake in a very slow oven two hours. Let stand. Then keep in a cool, dry place. The cranberries will look and taste like candied cherries, and may be used for garnishing.</p>

<emph rend="bold">BAKED CRAB-APPLE PRESERVES</emph>

<p>Wash, wipe and remove the blossom ends of one-half peck of perfect red Siberian crab-apples. Pour one tablespoon of water in bottom of one gallon stone jar, then place in alternate layers of apples and sugar, using four pounds altogether (with sugar on top). Cover with two thicknesses of Manila paper, tied down securely or with close fitting plate. Bake in a very slow oven (that would only turn the paper a light brown), two or three hours; let stand to cool, keep in cool, dry place.</p>

<emph rend="bold">BAKED SICKEL PEARS</emph>

<p>May be prepared the same way. Flavor, if desired, with ginger or lemon juice.</p>

<emph rend="bold">BAKED QUINCES</emph>

<p>Quinces may be wiped, cored, and quartered; sugar filled in the cavities, and baked same as crab-apples, in a very slow oven three or more hours until clear and glassy.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNING FRUIT IN A WATER BATH</emph>

<p>Canned fruits may be cooked over the fire, but they are, on the whole, very much better if cooked in a water bath. Prepare fruit and syrup as for cooking in a preserving kettle

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and cook the syrup ten minutes. Sterilize the jars and utensils; fill the jars with fruit; then pour in enough syrup to fill the jars completely. Run the blade of a silver-plated knife around the inside of the jar and put the covers on loosely.</p>

<p>Have a wooden rack, slats, or straw in the bottom of a washboiler; put in enough warm water to come to about four inches above the rack; place the filled jars in the boiler, being careful not to let them touch. Pack clean white rags or cotton rope between and around the jars to prevent their striking one another when the water begins to boil. Cover the boiler and let the fruit cook as directed, counting from the time the surrounding water begins to boil. (This cooking is called sterilizing.)</p>

<p>Draw the boiler aside and remove the cover. When the steam passes off, lift out one jar at a time and place it in a pan of boiling water beside the boiler; fill to overflowing with boiling syrup; wipe the rim of the jar with a cloth wrung from boiling water; put on rubbers and cover quickly; stand the jar upside down and protected from drafts, until cool; then tighten the covers if screw covers are used, and wipe off the jars with a wet cloth. Paste on labels and put the jars on shelves in a cool, dark closet.</p>

<p>The time given for sterilizing is for quart jars; pint jars require three minutes less.</p>

<emph rend="bold">BLUEBERRIES</emph>

<p>To twelve quarts of berries take one quart of sugar and one pint of water. Put water, berries, and sugar in preserving kettle; heat slowly. Boil sixteen minutes, counting from the time the contents of the kettle begins to bubble.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNED RASPBERRIES</emph>

<p>To six quarts of berries take one quart of sugar. Put one quart of the fruit in the preserving kettle; heat slowly, crushing with a wooden potato masher; strain and press through a fine sieve. Return the juice and pulp to the kettle; add the sugar; stir until dissolved; then add the remaining quarts of berries. Boil sixteen minutes, counting from the time they begin to boil. Skim well while boiling, and put into jars as directed.</p>

<emph rend="bold">BLACKBERRIES</emph>

<p>The same as for raspberries.</p>

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<emph rend="bold">CURRANTS</emph>

<p>To twelve quarts of currants take four quarts of sugar. Treat the same as raspberries.</p>

<emph rend="bold">RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS</emph>

<p>To ten quarts of raspberries and three quarts of currants take two and one-half quarts of sugar. Heat, crush and press the juice from the currants and proceed as directed for raspberries.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNED GOOSEBERRIES</emph>

<p>To six quarts of berries take three pints of sugar and one pint of water.</p>

<p>Dissolve the sugar in the water, using three pints of sugar if the gooseberries are green and only half the quantity if they are ripe. Add the fruit and cook fifteen minutes.</p>

<p>Green gooseberries may also be canned like rhubarb without sugar and sweetened when used.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNED STRAWBERRIES</emph>

<p>After washing and hulling berries, proceed as with raspberries.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CANNED PEACHES</emph>

<p>Wash peaches, put them in a square of cheese-cloth or wire basket. Dip for two minutes in kettle of boiling water. Plunge immediately into cold water. Skin the peaches; leave whole or cut as preferred. Pack peaches in hot jars. Fill hot jars with hot syrup or boiling water. Put tops in position. Tighten tops but not airtight. Place jars on false bottom in wash-boiler. Let the water boil sixteen minutes. Seal as directed. To eight quarts of peaches take three quarts of sugar, two quarts of water.</p>

<p>Apricots, plums and ripe pears may be treated exactly as peaches.</p>

<emph rend="bold">QUINCES</emph>

<p>To four quarts of pared, cored and quartered quinces take one and one-half quarts of sugar and two quarts of water.</p>

<p>Rub the fruit hard with a coarse, crash towel, blanch for six minutes. Pare, quarter, and core; drop the pieces into cold water. Put the fruit in the preserving kettle with cold water to cover it generously. Heat slowly and simmer gently until tender. The pieces will not all require the same time to cook. Take each piece up as soon as it is so tender that a silver fork will pierce it readily. Drain on a platter. Strain the water in which the fruit was cooked through cheese-cloth.

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Put two quarts of the strained liquid and the sugar into the preserving kettle; stir over the fire until the sugar is dissolved. When it boils skim well and put in the cooked fruit. Boil gently for about forty minutes.</p>

<emph rend="bold">PEARS</emph>

<p>If the fruit is ripe it may be treated exactly the same as peaches. If, on the other hand, it is rather hard it must be cooked until so tender that a silver fork will pierce it readily.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CHERRIES</emph>

<p>Prepare in the same manner as you would for preserving, allowing half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. After putting the cherries into the syrup do not let them boil more than five minutes; then fill your cans to overflowing, seal immediately and then screw tighter as they grow cold. Remove the little bag of stoneswhich you have boiled with the syrup. The object in boiling the stones with the syrup is to impart the fine flavor to the fruit which cherries are robbed of in pitting.</p>

<emph rend="bold">CHERRIES FOR PIES</emph>

<p>Stem the cherries--do not pit them,--pack tight in glass fruit jars, cover with syrup, made of two tablespoons of sugar to a quart of fruit, allowing one-half cup of water to each quart of cherries. Let them boil fifteen minutes from the time they begin to boil.</p>

<emph rend="bold">PINEAPPLE</emph>

<p>Take off rind and trim. Cut into slices and divide into thirds. Fill into glass jars and dissolve sugar in water enough to cover the jars to overflowing, allowing half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and pour this sweetened water over the pineapples; proceed as in canning fruit in a water bath and let them boil steadily for at least twenty minutes. Draw the boiler aside or lift it off the coal range and allow the cans to cool in the water in which they were boiled even if it takes until the following day. Then remove each can carefully, screwing each can as tightly as possible. Wipe dry and put away in a cool place. All canned fruits should be examined carefully in one or two weeks' time after being put up. If any show signs of fermenting, just set them in a boiler of cold water and let them come to a boil slowly. Boil about ten minutes, remove boiler from the fire and allow the cans to cool in the boiler. When cold screw tight and put away.</p>