Chapter 17 Study Guide

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

  1. List the four important influences on the Enlightenment:
  1. List the two most influential men on Enlightenment thought?
  2. Who developed a system that had portrayed a pattern of mechanical and mathematical rationality in the physical world and insisted on the use of empirical experience to check rational speculation?
  3. Who wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1690 and argued that all humans enter the world with a blank page?
  4. What Latin phrase means blank page?
  5. List the two religions that were not tolerated in 18th century England:
  6. Which nation was significantly freer than any other European nation at the beginning of the Enlightenment?
  7. What culture was developed during the Enlightenment around books, pamphlets, newspapers, etc.?
  8. What was the driving force behind the expansion of printed materials?
  9. What printed works were considered to, “frequently poison the mind.”?
  10. What became centers for discussing writings and ideas?
  11. What did the Freemasons establish as meeting places for its members to discuss secular ideas in secular books?
  12. Which poet grew wealthy from his writings and was known as the greatest English poet of the 18th century?
  13. What was the expanding, literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials that created a new and increasing influential social force?

The Philosophes

  1. What was the name of a group of intellectuals that was made up of writers and critics and sought to apply reason to institutions and society?
  2. List five of the most famous philosophes:
  3. Where did they draw the bulk of their readership from?
  4. What areas of society did the Philosophes seek to reform?
  5. Who was the most influential philosophe?
  6. What country’s governmental system and societal norms did Voltaire admire?
  7. Which of Voltaire’s works was published in 1733 and praised the virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty?
  8. Which of Voltaire’s works was published in 1759 and attacked what he considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition?

The Enlightenment and Religion

  1. List four things that the philosophes did not like about the Christian church:
  1. When referring to the Church, who said, “Crush that Infamous Thing!”?
  2. Which belief likened God to a divine watchmaker who did not have any interaction with mankind?
  3. List the two major points of the deist creed:
  4. Who illustrated the deist belief that nature proved the existence of God in the following: “Th' unwearied Sun, from day to day, Does his Creator's Pow'r display, And publishes to every Land The Work of an Almighty Hand.”?
  1. Which group of intellectuals presented religious toleration as a primary social condition for the virtuous life?
  2. Which Enlightenment thinker doubted the existence of miracles?
  3. Which Enlightenment figures came closer to atheism in their religious thinking?

The Enlightenment and Society

  1. What work was published during 1751-1772 by Diderot and d’Alembert and resulted in secularized learning and the spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe?
  2. What work did Marquis CesareBeccaria publish in 1764 as an effort to make punishments effective and just?
  3. What name was given to French economic reformers who criticized mercantilism and promoted the protection of property as the primary role of government?
  4. Who wrote the Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776 and urged that the natural economic system is founded on economic liberty?
  5. What economic system did Adam Smith seek to abolish?
  6. According to Adam Smith, who should be allowed to pursue their own economic interests?
  7. According to Adam Smith, what is boundless and for the use of mankind?
  8. What economic policy contends that individuals should be allowed to pursue their own economic interests?
  9. According to Adam Smith, what four things should the government provide?
  10. What is the name of Adam Smith’s theory that moved human societies from barbarism to civilization?
  11. List the four parts to this theory:

Political Thought of the Philosophes

  1. Where did the most important thought of the Enlightenment occur?
  2. Which government was a model for Enlightenment thinkers?
  3. What book was published in 1748 by Baron de Montesquieu and became the most single most influential book of the 18th century?
  4. According to Montesquieu, what are the three branches of government that would check and balance one another thus creating a separation of powers?
  5. Which French political philosopher was known as an anti-philosophe and hated the world and society in which he lived?
  6. Which of Rousseau’s works was published in 1750 and contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature?
  7. Which of Rousseau’s works was published in 1755 and blamed much of the evil in the world on the uneven distribution of property?
  8. Whose ideas were used by 18th century thinkers to conclude that human beings pursued personal and selfish goals?
  9. According to Rousseau, what is more important than individual members and personal freedom?
  10. Who envisioned a society in which the virtuous citizen should be willing to subordinate his own self-interest to the general good of the community?
  11. What did European thinkers associated with the Enlightenment favor across the world?
  12. Who is famous for his views on cultural relativism?

Women in the Though and Practice of the Enlightenment

  1. Who on the whole were not strong feminists?
  2. Who maintained that women were not naturally inferior to men and that women should have a wider role in society?
  3. Who believed that men and women should inhabit separate spheres?
  4. Who promoted education and freedom for women in her work Vindication of the Rights of Woman published in 1792?

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

  1. What early 18th century style of art utilizes lavish, often lighthearted decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light and represented the Old Regime?
  2. Where did early Rococo architecture and decoration originate?
  3. Who did Rococo painting often depict at play in what was called fetes galantes or scenes of elegant parties in lush gardens?
  4. Which famous Rococo artist depicted young lovers embarking to pay homage to the goddess Venus in his work Pilgrimage to Isle of Cithera?
  5. Who succeeded King Louis XV of France in 1774?
  6. Which German archeologist fostered the rise of Neoclassicism in art and architecture by publishing in 1755 Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture and in 1764 The History of Ancient Art?
  7. List the two Roman cities that were rediscovered through excavation efforts during the 18th century that also fostered the rise of Neoclassicism in art and architecture:
  8. What artistic style represented old Republican values and embodied a return to figurative and architectural models drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world?
  9. What was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by young men as an educational rite of passage and included the city of Rome which also fostered the rise of Neoclassicism?
  10. What subject matter did Neoclassical paintings depict?
  11. Who was the foremost French Neoclassical painter?
  12. What painting illustrates soldiers who took an oath to die for the Roman Republic?
  13. Which Neoclassical sculptor produced works of Voltaire, Rousseau, Franklin, and Jefferson?
  14. Which church became a national monument for French Heroes?

Enlightened Absolutism

  1. Who wrote History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Greatin 1759?
  2. What phrase refers to 18th-century European rulers who embraced the reforms of the philosophes?
  3. What incentive prompted monarchs to adopt “enlightened reforms”?
  4. List three monarchs that were closely associated with Enlightened Absolutism:
  5. Who forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, and a growing bureaucracy?
  1. How did Frederick the Great describe himself?
  2. What was codified under Frederick the Great?
  3. Who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1740 to 1780?
  4. Which 18th-century state was the most diverse in its people and problems?
  5. In which war did Maria Theresa guarantee the aristocracy considerable independence?
  6. List four accomplishments of Maria Theresa:
  1. Who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1780 to 1790?
  2. What territory’s autonomy in the Holy Roman Empire did Joseph II seek to reduce?
  3. What religion have the Habsburgs championed since the reign of Charles V?
  4. Who sought to improve the productivity and social conditions of the peasantry in Austria through the abolition of serfdom?
  5. Which group of people resisted Joseph’s centralization measures in Hungary?
  6. Who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1790 to 1792?
  7. What did Leopold II do to many of Joseph II’s reforms?
  8. Which of Peter the Great’s children became the ruler of Russia in 1741?
  9. Who became the Tsar of Russia in 1762?
  10. Who did Peter III make peace with during the Seven Years’ War?
  11. Who ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 and sought to reform Russia using enlightenment ideas?
  12. What did Catherine the Great issue in 1785 to guarantee the rights and privileges of the nobles?
  13. Who built a strong alliance with the Russian nobility?
  14. Which empire declared war on Russia in 1769 which resulted in the Russo-Turkish War of 1769-1774?
  15. Which state did Catherine the Great annex in 1783?
  16. What country ceased to exist when it was partitioned from 1772 to 1795 by Prussia, Austria, and Russia?
  17. Which Russian rebellion took place between 1773 and 1775?
  18. What did the people with “Enlightened” rulers do with Enlightenment philosophy?